贝博官网app

欢迎访问本站!
设为首页 | 加入收藏
学生处
 网站首页 || 机构设置 | 贝博官网app | 学工动态 | 学生管理 | 学生资助 | 公寓管理 | 国防教育 | 心理健康 | 规章制度 | 下载专区 
站内搜索:
  国防教育  
 
 国防教育 
 
  国防教育    

讲武堂第一期——海权组成的因素(1)

2013年12月03日 15:49  点击: []

海权组成的因素

JUNSHIAIHAOZHEXIEHUI——XIONGXINSONG

海权意识的来源

CONGZHENGZHIHESHEHUIDEGUANDIANLAIKAN,HAIYANGSHIQIBENSHENCHENGWEIZUIZHONGYAOHEZUIRERENZHUMUDESHIQIKEYICHONGFENLIYONGDEHAISHANGHANGXIAN,HUOZHEGENGQUEQIEXIESHUO,HAIYANGSHIRENMENJIEYITONGXIANGSIMIANBAFANGDEGUANGKUODEGONGYOUDI,DANSHIZAIZHEIPIANGONGYOUDINEI,GUOQUJINGCHANGSHIYONGDEHANGXIAN,YOUYUSHOUGEZHONGYUANYINDEZHIYUE,ZHINENGXUANZEQIZHONGMOUXIEZUOWEIHANGXIAN,TAMENBEICHENGZHIWEIMAOYIHANGXIAN。WEISHENMEZHINENGXUANZEZHEIXIEZUOWEIHANGXIAN?QIDAANYAOCONGSHIJIELISHIZHONGQUXUNZHAO。

  JINGUANHAISHANGYOUGEZHONGCHANGJIANHEBUCHANGJIANDEWEIXIAN,DANSHIWULUNSHILVXINGHAISHIYUNSHU,JINGHAILUZONGBIJINGLULUFANGBIAN、BIANYI。HELANDEMAOYIFADABUJINSHIYINWEITAYONGYOUJIAOFADADEHAIYUNSHIYE,ERQIEYEYOUYUTAYONGYOUWUSHUTIAOANQUANDESHUILU,TONGGUOZHEIXIESHUILUKEYIXUNSUDIJINRUHELANHEDEYIZHIDENEIDI。200NIANQIANDEQINGKUANGSHILUSHANGDEDAOLUSHAOQIEYOUBUHAO,BINGQIEZHANSHIPINFAN,SHEHUIDONGDANGBUAN,SUOYISHUILUYUNSHUJIAOZHILULUYUNSHUJIUGENGJUMINGXIANDEYOUYUEXING。JINGUANDANGSHIHAISHANGYUNSHUYOUZAOQIANGJIEDEWEIXIAN,DANSHIRENGRANBIJINGLULUANQUAN、XUNSU。DANGSHIYIWEIHELANZUOZHEGUJIDAOLETADEGUOJIAYOUKENENGYAOYUYINGGUOJIAOZHAN,TAZAIZHUDUOSHIQINGDANGZHONG,GEWAIZHUYIDAOLEYINGGUOGUONEIDESHUILUBUCHANGTONG,BUNENGTONGGUOTAMENJINRUQIFUDI;YOUYUNEIBUDAOLUBUHAO,SUOYIBIXUJINGHAILUBAHUOWUCONGWANGGUODEYIGEDIFANGYUNDAOLINGYIGEDIFANG,ERJINGGUOHAILUTUZHONGYOUYOUBEIQIANGJIEDEWEIXIAN。MUQIANDUICHUNSHUGUONEIMAOYILAISHUO,ZHEIZHONGWEIXIANYIBANSHIBUCUNZAIDE。XIANZAIZAIDADUOSHUWENMINGGUOJIALI,JINGUANSHUILUYUNSHURENGRANBIJIAOBIANYI,DANSHIYANHAIMAOYIDEPOHUAIHUOXIAOSHI,ZHIBUGUOSHIYIJIANBUFANGBIANZHISHI。KESHIZHIDAOFALANXIGONGHEGUOHEFALANXIDIYIDIGUOZHANZHENGSHIQI,JINGUANDANGSHIHAISHANGYOUCHENGQUNJIEDUIDEYINGGUOXUNHANGJIAN,FAGUONEILUYOUYOUHENHAODEDAOLU,DANSHINEIXIESHUXIZHEIDUANLISHIDERENMENHEWEIRAOZHEIDUANLISHISUOCHANSHENGDETONGSUHAIJUNWENXUEZUOPIN,RENGRANJINGCHANGTIJIYANFAGUOHAIANCONGYIGEDIFANGTOUDUDAOLINGYIGEDIFANGDEHUHANGCHUANDUI。

  DANSHI,ZAIXIANDAITIAOJIANXIA,BINHAIGUOJIADEGUONEIMAOYIZHISHIQIZHENGGEMAOYIDEYIBUFEN。ERWAIGUODEBIXUPINHUOSHECHIPINBIXUYOUBENGUODEHUOWAIGUODECHUANBOYUNZHITADEGANGKOU,ZHEIXIECHUANBOFANHUISHIYOUCONGSHIZHEIYIDIQUDECHANPINJIAOHUAN,SUOJIAOHUANDECHANPINHUOZHESHIDAZIRANDECHANWU,HUOZHESHIRENMENDELAODONGCHENGGUO;DANSHIMEIYIGEGUOJIADOUXIWANGZHEIZHONGYUNSHUYEYINGGAIYOUZIJIGUOJIADECHUANBOLAICHENGDAN。ZHEIXIEWANGLAICHUANSUODECHUANBOFANHUISHIBIXUYOUANQUANDEGANGKOU;ZHENGGEHANGXINGQIJIAN,GUOJIADUICHUANBODEBAOHU,BIXUGENZONGZHIJINKENENGYUANDEDIFANG。

  ZHANSHI,ZHEIXIEYUNSHUCHUANBOBIXUYOUWUZHUANGJIANCHUANWEIQITIGONGBAOHU。SUOYICONGXIAYILAISHUO,HAIJUNDECHUXIANSHIYOUYUPINGSHIYOUHAIYUN,SUIZHEHAIYUNDEXIAOSHI,HAIJUNYEJIANGXIAOSHI。CHUFEIDANGYIGEGUOJIAYOULEQINLVEYITUSHI,CAIHUIBAOCHIYIZHIHAIJUN,BINGQIEYEZHISHIZUOWEIJUNDUIBIANZHIDEYIBUFEN。YINWEIMEIGUOMUQIANHAIMEIYOUZHEIZHONGYITU,BINGQIEYEWUXUWEISHANGCHUANHUHANG,SUOYICONGYANJINDELUOJITUIDUANCHUDEBIRANJIEGUOSHIMEIGUODEWUZHUANGJIANDUIHUIZHUJIANJIANSHAO,BINGQIEDUIWUZHUANGJIANDUIPUBIANBUGANXINGQU。DANSHI,YOUYUMOUZHONGYUANYIN,DANGMEIGUOZAICIFAXIANHAISHANGMAOYIYOULIKETUSHI,DUIHAIYUNCHANSHENGDENONGHOUDEXINGQUJIANGHUIZHONGXINPOSHITAQUHUIFUQIHAIJUN。ERDANGJINGGUOZHONGMEIZHOUDIXIADEYITIAOYUNHEBUJIUJIJIANGCHUXIANSHI,SHIFENQIANGLIEDEQINLVEYUWANGYEKENENGHUICUSHITAQUZHONGJIANQIHAIJUN。BUGUOZHEISHIZHIDEHUAIYIDE,YINWEIYIGEAIHAOHEPING、HUODEBOAIDEGUOJIASHIQUESHAOYUANJIANDE,ERZAIBEIBOGUANWANGappZHEIGESHIDAIYAOZUOCHONGFENDEJUNSHIZHUNBEI,BIXUYAOYOUYUANJIANZHUOSHI。

  ZUOWEIYIGEGUOJIA,SUIZHETADEFEIWUZHUANGCHUANBOHEWUZHUANGJIANCHUANLIKAIQIHAIANDENEIYIKEQI,JIULIKEHUIGANDAOXUYAOYIXIENENGGONGPINGSHIMAOYI、BINANDEBUJIDEJUDIAN。MUQIAN,ZAISHIJIEGEDIDOUKEYIZHAODAOYIXIEYOUHAODEGANGKOU,ZUOWEIZHEIYANGDEJUDIAN,SUIRANZHEIXIEYOUHAOGANGKOUSHIWAIGUODE;BINGQIEZAIHEPINGSHIQI,ZHEIXIEDIFANGDOUKEYIYONGZUOWEIBINANCHANGSUO。DANSHIQINGKUANGBUHUIZONGSHIZHEIYANG,JINGUANMEIGUOXIANZAIYIJINGDEDAOLERUCIYOULIDECHIJIUHEPING,DANSHIHEPINGBUHUIZHANGQIYONGYUANCUNZAIXIAQUDE。ZAOQI,SHANGCHUANCHUANYUANWEILEXUNQIUZAIXINDEHEMEIYOUBEIKANCHADEDIQUJINXINGMAOYI,MAOZHESHIQUSHENGMINGHEZIYOUDEWEIXIAN,CONGCHIHUAIYITAIDUHEDIDUITAIDUDEGUOJIALIDEDAOHAOCHU,ERTAMENZAISOUJIZUGOUHEYOUYIDEHUOWUSHI,YAODANGEHENZHANGSHIJIAN。SUOYISHANGCHUANCHUANYUANYIQIZHIJUEGANDAOXUYAOZAIMAOYIXIANDEYUANCHUXUNZHAOYIGEHUODUOGETINGBODI,TAMENWANGWANGTONGGUOSUZHUWULIHUOSHIYIENHUIDEDAOZHEIXIEDIFANG,RANHOUSHICHUANYUANHUOQIDAILIRENKEYIBIJIAOPINGANDIDAIZAINEILI,SHITAMENDEJIANCHUANKEYIANQUANDITINGBOZAINEILI,KEYILIANXUBUDUANDISOUJIZAIDALUSHANGYOUXIAOLUDEHUOWU,DENGDAIBENGUOCHUANDUIBATAMENYUNHUIQU。ZAOQIZHEIZHONGHANGXINGHUOLIJUDA,SUIRANQIFENGXIANYEHENDA,DANSHIZHEIZHONGJIGOURENGRANCHENGBEIDIZENGZHANGHEKUODA,ZHIDAOJIANGZHEIXIEDIFANGBIANCHENGZHIMINDIWEIZHI。ZHEIXIEDIFANGZUIHOUDEFAZHANHECHENGGONG,QUJUEYUCHUANGJIANZHIMINDIDEGUOJIADEXINGZHIHESUOTICHUDEZHENGCE,TAMENGOUCHENGLEYIBUFEICHANGZHONGYAODESHIJIELISHI,YIBUDUTEDESHIJIEHAIYANGLISHI。RUSHANGSUOSHU,SUOYOUDEZHIMINDIBUSHIJIANDANDIZIRANDICHANSHENGHEFAZHANDE。JIUZHIMINDIDEQIYUANHECHUANGJIANERYAN,YOUXIESHIBIJIAOZHENGGUIDE,SHICHUNSHUZHENGZHIXINGDE。JIUTONGZHIZHEDEXINGWEILAISHUO,YUQISHUOSHIWEILERENMIN,BURUSHUOSHIWEILESIRENTUANTI。DANSHIYIHOUSUIZHEMAOYIZHANDEZHUJIANKUODA,ZHISHIWEIZHUIQIULIRUNDEMAOXIANJIADEGONGZUO,ZAIDAOLISHANGHEBENZHISHANGTONGJINGXINZUZHIHEZUYONGZHIMINDIDEGONGZUOSHIYIYANGDE。ZHEILIANGZHONGQINGKUANGDOUSHIWEILESHIBENGUOZAIWAIGUODETUDISHANGHUODEYIKUAILIZUZHIDI,DOUSHIWEILEJIBENGUOCHUSHOUDEHUOWUXUNZHAOYITIAOXINXIAOLU,WEILEJIBENGUODEJIANCHUANHUODEYIGEXINDEHUODONGCHANGSUO,YESHIWEILEJIBENGUORENMINMOUQIUGENGDUODEZHIYE,SHITADEGUOJIAGENGJIAFANRONGFUQIANG。

  DANSHI,LULUYUHAILUBUTONG,DANGLULUDELINGYIDUANNENGGOUQUEBAOANQUANSHI,JIUBUXUYAOWEIMAOYIZUOGEZHONGZHUNBEI。ERHAISHANGHANGXINGDEJULIJIAOYUANYEBIJIAOWEIXIAN,SUOYIZAIHAISHANGCHANGCHANGHUIZAODAODIRENWEIGONG。ZAIKAITUOZHIMINDIZUIHUOYUEDERIZILI,HAISHANGSHENGXINGZHEYIZHONGMUWUFAJIDEXINGWEI,RUJINRENMENJIHUYIJIANGQIQUANBUWANGJILE。HAIYANGGUOJIAJIANDECHIJIUHEPINGSHIJIWEIHANJIANDE。YINCI,YANTUXUYAOYIXIEXIANGHAOWANGJIAO、SHENGHELENADAO、MAOLIQIUSINEIYANGDEHAIJUNZHAN,ZHEIXIEHAIJUNZHANDEZHUYAOMUDEBUSHIWEIMAOYI,ERSHIWEILEJINXINGFANGYUHEZHANZHENG。HAIYANGGUOJIAYAOQIUZHANLINGXIANGZHIBULUOTUO、MAERTAHEWEIYUSHENGLAOLUNSIWANCHUKOUCHUDELUYISIBAONEIYANGDEGANGKOU,ZHEIXIEGANGKOUDEJIAZHISUIRANWEIBIWANQUANXIANGTONG,DANZHUYAOSHIZHANLVEXINGZHIDE。ZHIMINDIHEZHIMINDIHUADEGANGKOUDEXINGZHIYOUSHISHISHUYUSHANGYEDE,YOUSHISHISHUYUJUNSHIDE,DANSHI,TONGYIGEDIFANG,XIANGNIUYUENEIYANGZAISHANGYEHEJUNSHILIANGFANGMIANDOUTONGYANGZHONGYAOSHIBIJIAOHANJIANDE。

  SHENGCHAN,SHIJIAOHUANCHANPINSUOBIXUDE;HAIYUN,SHIYONGLAIJINXINGBUDUANJIAOHUANDE;ZHIMINDISHICUJINHEKUODAHAIYUNHUODONG,BINGTONGGUOBUDUANZENGJIAANQUANDEJUDIANLAIBAOHUHAIYUN。ZAIZHEISANZHEZHONGBEIBOGUANWANGappJIANGHUIZHAODAOJUEDINGBINHAIGUOJIADELISHIHEZHENGCEDEGUANJIAN。YIGEGUOJIADEZHENGCESHISUIZHESHIDAIDEJINGSHENHETONGZHIZHEDEXINGGEHEYINGMINGCHENGDUDEBUTONGERGEBUXIANGTONG。DANSHI,BINHAIGUOJIADELISHIBUSHIYOUZHENGFUDEJINGMINGHESHENMOUYUANLVJUEDINGDE,ERSHIYOUTADEWEIZHI、FANWEI、ZIRANJIEGOU、RENKOUHEMINZUTEDIAN——YIJUHUACHENGZHIWEIZIRANTIAOJIANSUOJUEDINGDE。KESHIYOUBIXUCHENGREN,BINGQIEJIANGHUIKANDAO: YOUYUMOUXIEGEBIERENDEMINGZHIXINGWEIHUOYUCHUNDEXINGDONGZAIYIDINGSHIQINEI,BIJIANGCONGHENDUOFANGMIANDADADIYINGXIANGLEHAIQUANDEFAZHAN。ZHEIBUJINBAOKUOYONGWULIKONGZHIHAIYANGHUOQIRENHEYIBUFENDEHAISHANGJUNSHILILIANGDEFAZHAN,ERQIEHAIBAOKUOYIZHIJUNSHIJIANDUIYUANYUHELAIYICUNZAIDEPINGSHIMAOYIHEHAIYUNDEFAZHAN。

YINGXIANGGEGUOHAIQUANDEZHUYAOTIAOJIANKEYILIEJURUXIA: 1. DILIWEIZHI;2. ZIRANJIEGOU,BAOKUOYUCIYOUGUANDEDAZIRANDECHANPINHEQIHOU;3. LINGTUFANWEI;4. RENKOU;5. MINZUTEDIAN;6. ZHENGFUDEXINGZHI,BAOKUOGUOJIAJIGOU。

影响海权的自然条件(1)

   1. DILIWEIZHI——SHOUXIANKEYIZHICHU,RUGUOYIGEGUOJIASUOCHUWEIZHI,JIBUKAOLULUQUBAOWEIZIJI,YEBUKAOLULUQUKUOZHANGQILINGTU,ERWANQUANBAMUBIAOZHIXIANGHAIYANG,NEIMEZHEIGEGUOJIAJIUBIYIGEYIDALUWEIJIEDEGUOJIAJUYOUGENGYOULIDEDILIWEIZHI。YINGGUOZUOWEIYIGEHAISHANGQIANGGUOJIUDADAYOUYUFAGUOHEHELAN。FAGUOHEHELANBIXUZHANGQIBAOCHIYIZHIGUIMOJUDADELUJUN,BINGQIEYAOBUDUANDICONGSHIHAOZIJUDADEZHANZHENGYIWEIHUQIDULI,TAMENDELILIANGHENKUAIJIUHUIBEIHAOJIN。BINGQIEFAGUODEZHENGCEYOUJINGCHANGYAOBAIBUDING,YOUSHISHIMINGZHIDI,YOUSHISHISHIFENHUANGMIUDIBUDUANDIYOUHAISHANGZHUANXIANGDALUKUOZHANG。JINXINGDALUKUOZHANGSHIYAOXIAOHAOCAIFUDE;FANZHI,RUGUOFAGUONENGGOUMINGZHIDI、SHIZHONGRUYIDILIYONGQIDILIWEIZHI,JIUHUIMIBUQISUOCHUWEIZHIDEBUZU。

  DILIWEIZHIBENSHENKEYICUSHIHAIJUNLILIANGJIZHONGHUOFENSAN。ZAIZHEIFANGMIANYINGLUNSANDAOYOUYOUYUFAGUO。FAGUODEWEIZHI,BINLINDIZHONGHAIHEDAXIYANG,SUIRANYOUTADEYOULIFANGMIAN,DANSHIZONGDELAIKAN,TASHIZAOCHENGHAISHANGJUNSHILILIANGBORUODEYIGEYUANYIN。WEIYUDONGBIANHEXIBIANDEFAGUOJIANDUI,ZHINENGZAITONGGUOZHIBULUOTUOHAIXIAZHIHOUCAINENGLIANHEQILAI。TAMENZAIQITUZHEIYANGZUOSHI,CHANGCHANGYOUYAOMAOZHEHENDADEWEIXIAN,YOUSHIHAIYAOMENGSHOUJUDADESUNSHI。MEIGUODEWEIZHIBINLINLIANGDAYANG,RUGUOMEIGUOZAILIANGBIANHAIANSHANGDOUYOUDALIANGDEHAISHANGMAOYIDEHUA,ZHEIGEWEIZHIHUOZHESHISHIQIRUANRUODEYIZHONGGENYUAN,HUOZHESHISHIQIZAOSHOUJUDASUNSHIDEYIZHONGYUANYIN。

  YOUYUYINGGUOSHIYIGEPANGDADEZHIMINDIGUO,TAYIJINGJIBENSHANGSHIQULEWEIRAOTAZIJIHAIANJIZHONGBUDUIDEZHEIGEYOULITIAOJIAN;DANSHI,ZHEIZHONGXISHENGSHIHENMINGZHIDE,ZHENGRUSHIJIANYIJINGZHENGMINGDENEIYANG,TASHIDEDAYUSHI。SUIZHEYINGGUOZHIMINTIXIBUDUANKUODA,TADEZUOZHANJIANDUIYEZAIBUDUANDIFAZHAN,DANSHI,TADESHANGCHUANHECAIFUZENGZHANGDEGENGKUAI。KESHIDAOLEMEIGUODULIZHANZHENG、FALANXIGONGHEGUOZHANZHENG [ YIZHEZHU: FALANXIGONGHEGUOZHANZHENG(1792-1802)YECHENGFANFALIANMENGZHANZHENG,SHIFAGUOZICHANJIEJIGEMINGQUDESHENGLIHOU,OUZHOUGEZHUYAOFENGJIANJUNZHUGUOAODILI、PULUSHI、XIBANYA、HELANHEYINGGUODENGZUCHENGFANFALIANMENG,YUFAGUODAZICHANJIEJIJUNZHULIXIANPAIXIANGGOUJIEFANDUIFALANXIGONGHEZHENGFUDEZHANZHENG。 ] HEFALANXIDIGUOZHANZHENG [ YIZHEZHU: FALANXIDIGUOZHANZHENGYECHENGNAPOLUNZHANZHENG,ZHUYAOZHINAPOLUNYISHI1799NIANRENDIYIZHIZHENGQIANHOUHE1804-1814、1815NIANCHENGDIQIJIAN,DUIOUZHOUXUDUOGUOJIAHEFANFATONGMENGSUOJINXINGDEYIXILIEZHANZHENG。 ] SHIQI,YONGYIWEIFAGUOZUOZHEDEHUASHUO,“YINGGUO,JINGUANQIHAIJUNFAZHANZHUOYOUCHENGXIAO,SHUYUFUYUGUOJIAZHILIE,SIHUYEJINGCHANGGANSHOUDAOPINKUNDEJIONGPO。”YINGGUOYIKAOZIJIDELILIANGWANQUANKEYIHUWEITADEXINZANGHEGEBUJITI;DANSHI,TONGYANGFANWEIGUANGDADEXIBANYAZHIMINDIGUO,YOUYUHAISHANGLILIANGBORUO,CENGDUOCIZAODAOWURUHESHANGHAI。

  YIGEGUOJIADEDILIWEIZHIBUJINNENGYOULIYUJIZHONGTADEBUDUI,ERQIEHAIYAONENGWEIDUIFUDIRENDEKENENGJINGONG,TIGONGZUOZHANHUODONGDEZHONGXINWEIZHIHELIANGHAODEJIDIDEZHANLVEYOUSHI。YOUSHIYINGGUOJUYOUZHEIXIEYOULITIAOJIAN,YINGGUOYIFANGMIANMIANDUIZHEHELANHEBEIFANGQIANGGUO,LINGYIFANGMIANYOUMIANDUIZHEFAGUOHEDAXIYANG。DANGYINGGUOSHOUDAOGUOQUTACENGDUOCISHOUDAODEFAGUOYUBEIHAIHEBOLUODEHAIYIXIEHAISHANGQIANGGUOLIANMENGDEWEIXIESHI,WEIYUTANGSIHEYINGJILIHAIXIADEYINGGUOJIANDUI,SHENZHIWEIYUBULEISITEWAIHAIDEYINGGUOJIANDUIDOUZHANJULENEIXIANWEIZHI,ZHEIYANGJIUKEYISHIYINGGUOLIANHEJIANDUIXUNSUFANJIXIANGXUNJITONGGUOYINGJILIHAIXIAYUQIMENGGUOHUIHEDEDIREN。CHUCIZHIWAI,ZAIHAIXIADEMEIYIBIAN,DAZIRANHAIWEIYINGGUOJIANDUITIGONGLEJIAOHAODEGANGKOU,HEYITIAOANQUANDEKEYIKAOJINDEHAIAN。CONGQIAN,TONGGUOYINGJILIHAIXIA,ZIRANTIAOJIANSHIGEFEICHANGZHONGYAODEYINSU。DANSHIHOULAI,YOUYUZHENGQIJIANCHUANDECHUXIANHEHAIXIAGANGKOUTIAOJIANDEBUDUANGAISHAN,YIDUCENGSHIFAGUORENGANDAOKUNAODEBULIYINSUDADAJIANSHAOLE。FANCHUANSHIDAI,YINGGUOJIANDUIYITUOBEIGANGHEPULIMAOSIGANGWEIJIDILAIDUIFUBULEISITEGANGNEIDEFAGUOJIANDUI。QIJIHUAZHIBUGUOSHI: GUADONGFENGHUOHEFENGSHI,YINGGUOFENGSUOJIANDUIJIANSHOUZAIZHENWEISHANG,SHIMEIYOUDUODAKUNNANDE;DANSHIDANGGUAQIQIANGDADEXIFENG,HUOZHEFENGTAIQIANGJINGSHI,ZHIXINGFENGSUORENWUDEYINGGUOJIANDUIJIUZHINENGSHIHUIZIJIDEGANGKOU,YINWEITAMENZHIDAOZHEIZHONGDAFENGTONGYANGHUISHIFAGUOJIANDUISHIHUIQIZHUDI,BINGQIEZAIDAFENGZHUANXIANGZHIQIAN,FAGUOJIANDUISHIBUHUICHULAIDE。

  RUJINKAOJINDIJUNHUOKAOJINYAOJINGONGDEMUBIAODEDILIWEIZHIDEYOUYUEXING,BIBUJIUYIQIANZAIBEICHENGZHIWEIPOHUAIMAOYIDEZUOZHANHUODONGZHONGXIANDEYOUWEIZHONGYAO,FAGUORENCHENGZHEIZHONGPOHUAIMAOYIDEZUOZHANHUODONGWEIJIELVEZHAN。YINWEIPOHUAIMAOYIDEZUOZHANHUODONGZHISHIZHIJIEGONGJIWUFANGYUNENGLIDESHANGCHUAN,SUOYISHISHIGONGJIDEJIANCHUANDEWUZHUANGLILIANGBUXUYAOHENQIANG。YINWEIZHEIXIEJIANCHUANBENSHENDEFANGYUNENGLIHENCHA,XUYAOFUJINYOUGEBINANCHUHUOZHEZHIYUANDIAN。ZHEIZHONGBINANCHUHEZHIYUANDIANHUOZHEWEIYUBENGUOZHANJIANKONGZHIDENEIBUFENHAIYULI,HUOZHEWEIYUYOUHAOGANGKOULI。WEIYUYOUHAOGANGKOULIDEBINANCHUHEZHIYUANDIANKEYITIGONGYOULIDEZHIYUAN,YUANYINSHIZHEIXIEGANGKOUTONGCHANGDOUGUDINGBUBIANDE,TONGSHANGPOHUAIJIANBIDIRENGENGSHUXIZHIGANGKOUDEHANGDAO。FAGUOKAOJINYINGGUOYINERGENGBIANYUFAGUORENCONGSHIZHENDUIYINGGUODEJIELVEZHAN。YOUYUFAGUOZAIBEIHAI、YINGJILIHAIXIAHEDAXIYANGSHANGDOUYOUGANGKOU,KAOJINYINGGUOLAILAIWANGWANGDEMAOYISHUNIU,BIANYUSHILIZHEIXIEGANGKOUDEXUNHANGJIANQIANQUJIELVE。JINGUANZHEIXIEGANGKOUJIANDEXIANGHUJULIBUSHIYUJINXINGZHENGGUIDELIANHEJUNSHIXINGDONG,DANQUESHIYUZHEIZHONGBUGUIZEDEFUZHUXINGZUOZHANHUODONG;YINWEIZHENGGUIZUOZHANDEZHONGYAOWENTIZHIYIJIUSHIYAOJIZHONGLILIANG,ZHIYUPOHUAIMAOYIDEJIELVEZHAN,FENSANHUODONGZESHITADEYUANZE。TONGSHANGPOHUAIJIANZHIYOUFENSANKAI,CAINENGFAXIANHEBUHUOGENGDUODESHANGCHUAN。ZHEIXIESHIJIQINGKUANGKEYICONGFAGUOXUDUOSILVECHUANDELISHIDEDAOSHUOMING。SILVECHUANDEJIDIHEHUODONGCHANGSUOZHUYAOSHIYINGJILIHAIXIAHEBEIHAI,HUOZHESHIZAIXIANGJUJIAOYUANDEQITAZHIMINDI,ZHURUGUADELUOPUDAOHEMATINIKEDAOYENENGTIGONGJIAOHAODEBINANCHU。YOUYUXIANDAIXUNHANGJIANXUYAOBUDUANBUCHONGRANLIAO,SUOYITAMENBIYIQIANDEJIANCHUANGENGYILAIYUGANGKOU。MEIGUODEGONGZHONGYULUNHENXINFENGZHIJIEGONGJIDISHANGCHUANDEZHANZHENG。DANSHI,BIXUQIEJIMEIGUOZAIGUOWAIDADEMAOYIZHONGXINFUJINMEIYOUGANGKOU。SUOYIMEIGUODEDILIWEIZHIFEICHANGBUSHIYIJINXINGPOHUAIMAOYIDEZUOZHANHUODONG,CHUFEIMEIGUOZAITONGMENGGUODEGANGKOULIZHAODAOLEJIDI。

  RUGUOYIGEGUOJIADEDILIWEIZHI,CHULEJUYOUBIANYUJINGONGDETIAOJIANZHIWAI,DAZIRANYISHITAZUOLUOZAIBIANYUJINRUGONGHAIDETONGDAOSHANG,TONGSHIHAISHITAKONGZHILEYITIAOSHIJIEZHUYAOMAOYITONGDAO,XIANERYIJIANTADEDILIWEIZHIJIUJUYOUZHONGYAODEZHANLVEZUOYONG。HENDACHENGDUSHANGYINGGUOYOUZHANJULEZHEIYANGDEYOULIWEIZHI。HELAN、RUIDIAN、EGUO、DANMAIDEMAOYIYIJIJINGGEDAHELIUJINRUDEYIZHINEIDIDEMAOYI,DOUBIXUYAOJINGGUOKAOJINYINGGUOMENHUDEYINGJILIHAIXIA,FANCHUANHAIBIXUJINKAOYINGGUOHAIANHANGXING。CIWAI,TONGBEIOUDEMAOYIYUHAIQUANYOUZHEYIZHONGGENGTESHUDEGUANXI,ZHEISHIYINWEITONGCHANGSUOSHUODEHAISHIBUJIPIN,ZHUYAOLAIYUANYUBOLUODEHAIGUOJIA。

  TANGRUOXIBANYAMEIYOUSHIDIAOZHIBULUOTUO,TADEDILIWEIZHIFEICHANGLEISIYUYINGGUODEWEIZHI。CONGQIANXIBANYADUIDAXIYANGHEDIZHONGHAISHISHIJIANSHIHENFANGBIAN,YINWEIQIYIBIANYOUJIADESI,LINGYIBIANYOUKATAHENA,ZHILIFANTEDIQUJINXINGMAOYIBIXUJINGGUOXIBANYAKONGZHIDEHAIQU,JIUSHIRAOHAOWANGJIAOJINXINGMAOYI,LITADEMENHUYEBUYUAN。DANSHI,YOUYUXIBANYASHIQULEZHIBULUOTUO,TABUJINSANGSHILEDUIHAIXIADEKONGZHIQUAN,ERQIEYEWEITADELIANGGEFENJIANDUIDESHUNLIHUIHESHEZHILEYIDAOZHANGAI。

  DANGQIAN,RUGUOZHIKANYIDALIDEDILIWEIZHI,ERBUKAOLVYINGXIANGHAIQUANDEQITATIAOJIAN,SIHUTADEYITIAOMANZHANGDEHAIANXIANHEYIXIEJIAOHAODEGANGKOU,HUISHITACHUYUHENHAODEWEIZHISHANG,ZHEIGEWEIZHISHITADUIZHILIFANTEDIQUHEJINGSUYISHIDIXIADEMAOYICHANSHENGJUEDINGXINGDEYINGXIANG。CONGMOUZHONGYIYISHANGLAISHUO,DEQUERUCI。RUGUOYIDALIXIANZAINENGBAOCHIZHUYUANBENSHUYUYIDALIDESUOYOUDAOYU,QINGKUANGJIANGHUIGENGHAO。DANSHI,YOUYUMAERTABEIYINGGUORENZHANLING,ERKEXIJIAYOUGUIFAGUORENSUOYOU,ZHEIYANGYIDALIDILIWEIZHIDEYOUYUEXINGJIUDADADIJIANGDILE。CONGMAERTAHEKEXIJIAZHEILIANGGEDAODEMIQIEZHONGZUGUANXIHEWEIZHILAIKAN,JIUXIANGXIBANYARENLIYINGDEDAOZHIBULUOTUOYIYANG,ZHEILIANGGEDAOLISUODANGRANYINGSHUYUYIDALI。RUGUOYADELIYAHAISHIYITIAOZHUYAOMAOYIJIAOTONGGANXIAN,YIDALIDEWEIZHIWUYONGZHIYIDUIZHEITIAOGANXIANHUIYOUZHONGYAODEYINGXIANG。ZONGGUANYIDALIDEDILIWEIZHIKEYIKANDAOYOUQIBUZUZHICHU,JIAZHIQITAYIXIEYUANYIN,YOUHAIYUTAQUANMIANWENTUODIFAZHANTADEHAIQUAN,RENMENDUIYIDALISHIFOUYOUCHAOYIRIHUILIERUHAIJUNQIANGGUOZHILIEYESHENBIAOHUAIYI。

  YINWEIBENSHUDEMUDEBUSHIXIANGJINWUYIDITAOLUNYIGEGUOJIADEDILIWEIZHIDUIQIZAIHAIYANGSHANGDEFAZHANSHIRUHEZHONGYAO,ERZHISHIDASUANYONGSHILILAISHUOMINGDILIWEIZHIDUIHAIQUANFAZHANDEYINGXIANG。YINCI,ZHEIGEWENTIKEYIZANSHIGEZHIYIBIAN,GENGDUODILIEJUYIXIENENGJINYIBUSHUOMINGTADEZHONGYAOXINGDESHILI,ZHEIXIESHILIZAILISHILUNSHUZHONGJIANGHUIBUDUANDIBEIFANFUYINGYONG。BUGUOZHEIERYOULIANGJUHUASHIQIARUQIFENDE。

  YIJUHUASHIDIZHONGHAIZHOUWEIDEHUANJING,YIJINGSHIQIZAISHIJIELISHISHANGQIDAOLEBIJIAOZHONGYAODEZUOYONG,WULUNSHICONGMAOYIJIAODU,HAISHICONGJUNSHIJIAODULAIKAN,TASUOQIDEZUOYONGDOUBITONGYANGDAXIAODEHAIYUSUOQIDEZUOYONGDADEDUO。SUOYIYIGEGUOJIAJIEZHEYIGEGUOJIADOULIQIUKONGZHITA,BINGQIEZHEIZHONGJINGZHENGXIANZAIRENGZAIJIXU。YINCI,YANJIUZAIDIZHONGHAIHAIYUGUOQUZHANYOUSHIHEXIANZAIRENGRANZHANYOUSHIDETIAOJIAN,YIJIYANJIUDIZHONGHAIYANANGEDIDEXIANGDUIJUNSHIJIAZHI,JIANGBIZAIQITADIFANGHUAFEITONGYANGDUODEJINGLISHOUXIAOGENGDA。CIWAI,CONGMUQIANDEQINGKUANGLAIKAN,DIZHONGHAIZAIXUDUOFANGMIANLEISIYUJIALEBIHAI,RUGUOBANAMAYUNHETONGHANGLE,QINGKUANGJIUGENGJIAXIANGSILE。YANJIUYIJINGDEDAOHENHAOLUNZHENGDEDIZHONGHAIDEZHANLVETIAOJIAN,JIANGSHIYANJIUJIALEBIHAIDEYIGEJIQILIANGHAODEKAIDUAN,JIALEBIHAIDELISHIXIANGDUILAISHUOSHIBIJIAODUANZANDE。

DIERJUHUASHIGUANYUYUMEIZHOUZHONGBUYUNHEYOUGUANDEMEIGUODEDILIWEIZHI。YIDANDONGSHOUXIUJIANYUNHE,JIANZHUZHEDEXIWANGFUZHUSHIXIANLE,JIALEBIHAIJIANGCONGYIGEZHONGDIANZHAN,CONGYIGEDIFANGXINGDEMAOYICHANGSUO,HUOZHEZUIDUOXIANGXIANZAIZHEIYANGZHISHIYITIAOBULIANGUAN、BUWANZHENGDEJIAOTONGXIAN,BIANCHENGSHIJIESHANGYITIAOBIJIAOZHONGYAODEJIAOTONGGANXIAN。YANZHEZHEITIAOJIAOTONGYUXIANKEYIJINXINGDALIANGMAOYI,BINGQIEKEYIBAQITAYIXIEDAGUODELIYI,ZHUYAOSHIOUZHOUGUOJIADELIYIDAIDAOBEIBOGUANWANGappGUODONGXILIANGBIANDEHAIAN,ZHEISHIGUOQUCONGWEIYOUGUODE。ZHEIYANGYEJIUHENNANZAISHIJIALEBIHAIBAOCHIGUOQUNEIZHONGTUOLIGUOJIJIUFENDEJUMIANLE。MEIGUODEWEIZHIYUZHEITIAOHANGXIANDEGUANXI,JIANGHUILEISIYUYINGGUOYUYINGJILIHAIXIADEGUANXI,LEISIYUWEIYUDIZHONGHAIDEGUOJIAYUSUYISHIYUNHEDEGUANXI。ZHIYUDUIYUNHEDEYINGXIANGHEKONGZHI,YIJUDILIWEIZHIERDING,HENQINGCHUZUOWEIGUOJIALILIANGDEZHONGXIN,GUOJIADEYONGJIUXINGJIDI [ YUANZUOZHEZHU: DUI“YONGJIUXINGZUOZHANJIDI”,ZHEIGECILAISHUO,BUYANERYUSHIZHIYIGEGUOJIADESUOYOUCAILIHEWULIDELAIYUANDI,SHISHUILUHELULUDEJIAOTONGSHUNIU,SHIJUNHUOKUHEWUZHUANGSHAOSUODESUOZAIDI。 ] ,DANGRANMEIGUOLIYUNHEYAOBIQITADAGUOJINDEDUO。QITADAGUOXIANZAIHUOZHEYIHOUZAIDAOSHANGHUOZHEZAIDALUSHANGZHANLINGDEWEIZHI,BUGUANZENYANGLAOGUKEKAO,YEZHIBUGUOSHIQIGUOJIADEQIANSHAOJIDI,DANJIUWEIJUNSHILILIANGTIGONGDESUOYOUWUZHIZHIYUANERLUN,NAYIGEGUOJIAYEGANBUSHANGMEIGUO。DANSHIZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,MEIGUODUIZHANZHENGHAOWUZHUNBEI,ZHEISHITADERUODIAN。MEIGUODEDILIWEIZHISUIRANKAOJINDOUZHENGDIAN,RANERYOUYUMOXIGEWANHAIANDETEDIAN,SHIQISANGSHILEBUFENJIAZHI。MOXIGEWANQUESHAOBUSHOUDIRENGANRAO、YOUBIANYUXIULIYIJIZHANJIANDEGANGKOU,QUESHAOYIJIZHANJIANDEGUOJIASHIBUNENGWANGQIUKONGZHIMOUYIHAIQUDE。YIDANZAIJIALEBIHAICHUXIANYICHANGZHENGBADOUZHENG,CONGMIXIXIBIHENANBUSHUIDAODESHENDULAIKAN,CONGXINAOERLIANGFUJINDEQINGKUANGYIJIMIXIXIBIHELIUYUJINXINGSHUISHANGYUNSHUDEYOULITIAOJIANLAIKAN,XIANERYIJIANGUOJIADEZHUYAOLILIANGBIXUQUANBUJIZHONGZAIZHEIYIDIQU,YEBIXUZAIZHEILIXUNQIUYONGJIUXINGDEZUOZHANJIDI。DANSHI,BAOWEIMIXIXIBIHEDERUKOUCHUSHIYIJIANYICHANGKUNNANDESHIQING,JINGUANZHEILIYOULIANGGEKEHUXIANGPIMEIDEGANGKOU: JIWEISITEGANGHEPENGSAKELAGANG,DANSHITAMENDESHUIWEIHENQIAN,DUIYUGUOJIADEZIYUANLAISHUOTAMENSUOCHUDEWEIZHIYESHIJIQIBULIDE。WEILECHONGFENLIYONGZHEILIDEYOULIDEDILIWEIZHI,BIXUKEFUSHANGSHUZHEIXIEBUZUZHICHU。CIWAI,JIUMEIGUOJUDIXIADEJULIERYAN,SUIRANXIANGDUILAISHUOBIJIAOJIN,DANSHIRENGRANYOUYIDUANJULI,SUOYIMEIGUOBUDEBUZAIJIALEBIHAIZHANLINGYIXIEDIFANG,YONGZUOYINGJIHUOFUZHUXINGZUOZHANJIDI;LIYONGZHEIXIEJIDIDEYOULIZIRANTIAOJIAN、FANGYUDEMINGANXINGHEKAOJINZHANLVEBUJIZHONGXIN,JIANGSHIMEIGUOJIANDUINENGXIANGRENHEDIDUIJIANDUINEIYANGJINKUAIGANDAOCHUSHIDIDIAN。SUIZHEMIXIXIBIHEDEJINCHUKOUYOULECHONGFENDEFANGHU,SUIZHEMEIGUORENZHANGWOLEZHEIYANGDEQIANSHAOJIDI,HEZHEIXIEJIDIYUBENGUOJIDIZHIJIANDEJIAOTONGYOULEKEKAODEBAOZHANG,JIANYANZHI,YOUYUTACAIQULEGEZHONGBIYAODECUOSHI,YOULECHONGFENDEJUNSHIZHUNBEI,NEIMEMEIGUOCONGQIDILIWEIZHIHESHILILAIKAN,QUESHIZAIZHEIGEZHANCHANGSHANGQUDELEWUYONGZHIYIDEYOUSHI。

影响海权的自然条件(2)

   ZIRANJIEGOU——BEIBOGUANWANGappGANGCAITIDAODEMOXIGEWANHAIANSUODUJUDETEDIAN,YINGDANGGUILEIDAOYIGEGUOJIADEZIRANJIEGOUFANGMIAN,ZHEISHIBEIBOGUANWANGappYAOTAOLUNDEYINGXIANGHAIQUANFAZHANDEDIERGETIAOJIAN。

  YIGEGUOJIADEHAIANXIANSHITADEBIANJINGDEYIBUFEN,RUGUOZHEIBUFENBIANJINGWEIQITIGONGLETONGXIANGJIAOYUANDIQUDEBIANLITONGDAO,ZAIZHEILIJIAOYUANDEDIQUSHIZHIHAIYANG,NEIMEZHEIGEGUOJIADERENMINYEHUIYUANYITONGGUOZHEIBUFENBIANJINGYUSHIJIEQITAGEDIJINXINGYOUHAOWANGLAI。SHEXIANGRUGUOYIGEGUOJIAYOUYITIAOMANZHANGDEHAIANXIAN,DANSHIMEIYOUYIGEGANGKOU,ZHEIGEGUOJIAJIUBUKENENGYOUTAZIJIDEHAISHANGMAOYI,YEBUKENENGYOUTAZIJIDEHAIYUNHEHAIJUN。DANGBILISHISHIXIBANYAHEAODILIDEYIGESHENGFENSHI,SHIJIQINGKUANGJIUSHISHANGSHUZHEIYANG。1648NIAN,HELANZAIYICICHENGGONGDEZHANZHENG [ YIZHEZHU: SHIZHIZUOWEISANSHINIANZHANZHENGDEZUCHENGBUFENDEHEXIZHANZHENG,HELANZHUANBAIWEISHENG,QIHAIJUNLVSHENGXIBANYAHAIJUN,YU1648NIANQIANDINGHEXIHEYUE,XIBANYACHENGRENHELANDULI,CHENGRENNIDELANNANBUCHENGSHIJIQIXIADIGUISHUHELAN。 ] ZHIHOU,ZUOWEIYIGEYIHETIAOJIANTICHUJINZHIBILISHITONGGUOSIHAIERDEHE(AISIKEHE)JINXINGHAISHANGMAOYI。ZHEIYANGJIUGUANBILEANTEWEIPUGANG,BINGQIEPOSHIBILISHIBAHAISHANGMAOYIZHUANZHIJIHELAN。XISHUNIDELANYEJIUBUZAISHIYIGEHAISHANGQIANGGUOLE。

  XUDUOSHENSHUIGANGDOUSHILILIANGHECAIFUDEYUANQUAN,RUGUOZHEIXIEGANGKOUWEIYUKETONGHANGHELIUDECHUKOUCHU,BIANYUJIZHONGYIGEGUOJIADEGUONEIMAOYI,ZETAMENDEJIAZHIJIUJIANGCHENGBEIZENGZHANG。DANSHI,YOUYUTONGGUOZHEIXIEGANGKOUYEFEICHANGRONGYIJINRUZHEIGEGUOJIA,RUGUOZHEIXIEGANGKOUMEIYOUHENHAODEFANGYU,FASHENGZHANZHENGSHI,TAMENJIANGCHENGWEIRONGYIZAODAORUQINDEYAOHAIBUWEI。LIRU,1667NIANHELANCENGQINGERYIJUDISHUNTAIWUSHIHESULIUERSHANG,ZAILILUNDUNBUYUANDEDIFANGSHAOHUILEYINGGUOHAIJUNDEDABUFENJIANCHUAN。DANSHI,JINIANZHIHOU,DANGYINGGUOHEFAGUOLIANHEJIANDUIQITUZAIHELANDENGLUSHI,QUEYINZAIHAIANSHANGYUDAOLEZHUDUOKUNNAN,ZAODAOHELANJIANDUIDEYONGMENGDIKANGERWEINENGDECHENG。1778NIAN,RUGUOBUSHIYOUYUFAGUOJIANDUISILINGDEYOUYUBUJUE,YOUKENENGHUISHICHUYUBULIDIWEIDEYINGGUORENSANGSHINIUYUEGANGHEQISUOKONGZHIDEHADESUNHE。RUGUOFAGUORENKONGZHILENIUYUEGANGHEHADESUNHE,XINYINGGELAN [ YIZHEZHU: XINYINGGELANXIMEIGUOZUIDONGBEIBUDIQUMING,BAOKUOMIANYIN、FOMENGTE、XINHANBUSHENER、MASAZHUSAI、LUODEDAO、KANGNIEDIGELIUZHOU。 ] YUNIUYUE、XINZEXIHEBINXIFANIYAJIFANGBIANYOUANQUANDEJIAOTONGXIANJIANGDEYIHUIFU;ERYINGGUOJINGENZHEQIANYINIANDEBOGEYINDABAIZHIHOU,YOUDIUSHIZHEILIANGGEDIFANG,HENKENENGZAOYIDAOZHIQITIQIANYIHE。MIXIXIBIHEDUIMEIGUOLAISHUOSHICAIFUHELILIANGDEZHUYAOLAIYUAN;DANSHIYOUYUMIXIXIBIHEHEKOUDEFANGYUXURUO,JIAZHIMIXIXIBIHEYOUWUSHUTIAOZHILIUBIANBUYUQUANGUO,SHIZHICHENGWEINANBUBANGLIANDEYIGEBORUOHUANJIE,BINGQIECHENGWEIQIZHANBAIDEYUANYIN。ZUIHOUHAIXUZHICHU,1814NIANQIESAPIKEWANBEIZHANLINGHEHUASHENGDUNZAODAOCUIHUI [ YIZHEZHU: 1812NIANZHANZHENGQIJIAN,MEIJUNYU1813NIANXIJILEJIANADASHOUFUYUEKE(JINDUOLUNDUO),SHAOHUILEYIHUIDASHA。1814NIANXIA,YINGHAIJUNJINRUQIESAPIKEWAN,ZHANLINGLEHUASHENGDUN,FANGHUOSHAOHUILEBAIGONG、GUOHUIDASHAHEQITAGONGGONGJIANZHU,WEIYUEKEYIHUIDASHABEIFENFUCHOU。 ] ,ZHEISHIYOUYUZUIZHONGYAOHANGDAODERUKOUCHUYINQUESHAOSHEFANGSUOZAOCHENGDEWEIHAI,TAJIBEIBOGUANWANGappLIUXIALECHENTONGJIAOXUN。SUIRANZHEIJIANSHIJUJINSHIJIANBUZHANG,RENMENHENRONGYIHUIYIQILAI;DANSHICONGMUQIANHAIANFANGYUDEXIANZHUANGLAIKAN,SIHURENMENYIJINGJIANGQIWANGQUELE。BUYINGGAIRENWEITIAOJIANYIJINGGAIBIANLE,XIANZAIHEGUOQUYIYANG,JINGUANJINGONGHEFANGYUDEQINGKUANGHEXIJIEYOULEYIXIEBIANHUA,DANSHI,ZHUYAODETIAOJIANRENGRANMEIYOUBIAN。

  ZAINAPOLUNJINXINGDELICIZHONGDAZHANZHENGZHIQIANHEZHANZHENGQIJIAN,FAGUOZAIBULEISITEYIDONGMEIYOUKEGONGZHANJIANSHIYONGDEGANGKOU。ERYINGGUOZAIZHEIYIDIQUQUESHIFEICHANGYOULIDE。ZAIZHEILIYINGGUOCHULEYOUYIXIEBINANGANGHEBUJIGANGZHIWAI,HAIZAIPULIMAOSIHEPOCIMAOSISHEYOULIANGGEDABINGGONGCHANG。HOULAI,FAGUOZAISEBAOGOUZHULEGONGSHI,MIBULETATAISHISHANGDEQUEXIAN。

  CHULEHAIANXIANDELUNKUO,BAOKUOZHIHAIYANGDEYIXIEBIANLITONGDAO,HAIYOUQITADEYIXIEZIRANTIAOJIANKEYIDAOZHIYIGEGUOJIADEGUOMINDAOHAISHANGQUHUOZHELIKAIHAIYANG。JINGUANFAGUOZAIYINGJILIHAIXIASHANGQUESHAOJUNSHIGANGKOU,DANSHITAZAIYINGJILIHAIXIA、DAXIYANGYIJIDIZHONGHAIQUEDOUYOUHENHAODEMINYONGGANGKOU,TAMENZUOLUOZAIGEDAHELIUDECHUKOUCHU,SHIHEYUJINXINGDUIWAIMAOYIHECUJINGUONEIMAOYI。DANSHIZAILISAILIUJIESHUNEIZHANSHI [ YIZHEZHU: LISAILIU(1585-1642)XIFAWANGLUYISHISANDEZAIXIANG,ZHIZHENGQIJIANYOUYUJUANSHUIFANZHONG,NONGMINYIZAIQIYI,JUNZAOLISAILIUZHENGFUDEZHENYA。 ] ,FAGUORENDUIDAIHAIYANGMEIYOUXIANGYINGGUORENHEHELANRENNEIYANGREQING,YEMEIYOUXIANGTAMENNEIYANGFUYOUCHENGXIAO。QIZHUYAOYUANYINSIHUSHIYOUZIRANTIAOJIANZAOCHENGDE。ZIRANTIAOJIANSHIFAGUOCHENGWEIYIKUAILIXIANGDELUDI,QIQIHOUSHIYI,TAZIJISHENGCHANDEDONGXIWANQUANKEYIMANZURENMINDEXUYAO。ERYINGGUOYUZHIXIANGFAN,DAZIRANCIJITADEHENSHAO,ZAITADEZHIZAOYEDEDAOFAZHANZHIQIAN,MEIYOUSHENMEDONGXIKEGONGCHUKOUDE。YINGGUORENFEICHANGPINKUN,JIAZHITAMENDEHAODONGXINGHEQITAYOULIYUHAISHANGSHIYEDEGEZHONGTIAOJIAN,CUSHIYINGGUORENDAOGUOWAIQU,TAMENZAIGUOWAIZHAODAOLEBITAMENBENGUOGENGHAOHEGENGFUYOUDEDIFANG。YOUYUTAMENDEZIYUANKUIFAHEMINZUDETEDIANSHITAMENCHENGWEISHANGRENHEZHIMINDIKAITUOZHE,RANHOUCHENGWEIZHIZAOSHANGHESHENGCHANZHE。CHANPINHEZHIMINDIZHIJIANDELIANXIBIXUYOUHAIYUNWANCHENG,SUOYITAMENDEHAISHANGLILIANGFAZHANQILAILE。RUGUOSHUOYINGGUORENSHIBEIXIYINDAOHAISHANGQUDE,NEIME,HELANRENDAOHAISHANGQUQUESHICHUYUBUDEYI;MEIYOUHAIYANGYINGGUOHUIBIANDERUANRUOWULI,RUOLIKAIHAIYANGHELANJIUHUIMIEWANG。ZAIHELANCHUYUDINGSHENGSHIQI,DANGTASHIJUEDINGOUZHOUZHENGZHIXINGSHIDEYIGEZHUYAOYINSUSHI,YIWEIDANGDIQUANWEIRENSHIGUJI,HELANDETUDIZUIDUOZHINENGGONGYANGTABENGUORENKOUDEBAFENZHIYI。HELANDEZHIZAOYEHENDUO,YEHENZHONGYAO,DANSHIZHIZAOYEDEFAZHANYIJINGYUANYUANLUOHOUYUHAIYUNSHIYEDEFAZHAN。PINJIDETUDIHEWUYANHUDEHAIAN,SHOUXIANPOSHIHELANRENCONGSHIYUYE,RANHOUFAXIANCONGSHIYUYEJIAGONGSHITAMENJIYOULEKEGONGCHUKOUDEHUOWU,YOUYOULEKEGONGGUONEIXIAOFEIDEWUZI,YUSHIYUYECHENGWEITAMENHUOQUCAIFUDEJICHU。JIUZHEIYANG,ZHENGDANGYIDALIGONGHETIYOUYUSHOUTUERQISHILIDEYAZHIHERAOHAOWANGJIAOHANGXIANDEFAXIANZHENGZAIZOUXIAPOLUSHI,HELANRENYIJINGCHENGLESHANGREN,BINGQIEJIETILEYIDALIRENZAILIFANTEDIQUDEZHUYAOMAOYI。CIWAI,HELANYOUDELIYUTAWEIYUBOLUODEHAI、FAGUO、DIZHONGHAIZHIJIANHEWEIYUDEGUOYIXIEHELIUDEHEKOUSHANGDEDILIWEIZHI,HENKUAISHIQICHENGDANLEJIHUOUZHOUSUOYOUDEHAISHANGMAOYI。200DUONIANYIQIAN,HELANJIANCHUANCHENGYUNLEBOLUODEHAIDEXIAOMAIHEHAIJUNSUOXUYAODEBUJIPIN、XIBANYAYUTAZAIMEIZHOUDALUDEZHIMINDIDEMAOYI、FAGUODEJIUYIJIFAGUODEHAIANMAOYI,SHENZHILIANYINGGUODEDABUFENYUNSHUYEYESHIYOUHELANHUOCHUANCHENGDANDE。SUOYIBUYINGGAIJIANGHELANDEBUDUANFANRONGJINJINGUIZHIYUHELANQUESHAOZIRANZIYUAN。SHENMESHIQINGDOUSHISHICHUYOUYIN。ZHENZHENGDEQINGKUANGSHIYOUYUHELANRENCHUYUPINKUNZHIZHONG,BEIPODAOHAISHANGQU,YOUYUTAMENKONGZHILEHAIYUNYE,BINGQIEJUYOUJIAODAGUIMODECHUANDUI,SHITAMENNENGHENHAODILIYONGXUNSUFAZHANQILAIDEMAOYILAIYINGLI,BINGQIEZAIMEIZHOUDALUHERAOHAOWANGJIAODEHANGXIANBEIFAXIANZHIHOU,HELANRENJIERNENGHENHAODILIYONGTAMENDETANXIANJINGSHENWEIQIMAOYIBEIBOGUANWANGapp。DANGRAN,SHIHELANFANRONGCHANGSHENGHAIYOUQITADEYUANYIN,DANSHIZHUYAOSHILIZUYUYOUYUPINQIONGERCHANSHENGDEHAISHANGLILIANG。HELANDESHIPIN、YIFUHEZHIZAOYEDEYUANLIAO,YONGLAIJIANZAOHEZHUANGBEIJIANCHUANDESUOYOUMULIAOHEDAMA(TAMENSUOJIANZAODEJIANCHUANJIHUDENGYUOUZHOUSUOYOUQITAGUOJIAJIANZAOJIANCHUANDEZONGHE)DOUSHIJINKOUDE。1653NIANHE1654NIANDANGHELANYUYINGGUOJINXINGCHIXU18GEYUEDEZAINANXINGZHANZHENGSHI,TAMENDEHAIYUNSHIYEWANQUANBEIPOTINGZHI,JUSHUO“CENGYIZHISHITAMENDEGUOJIASHOURUYOUCHONGFENLAIYUANDE,RUYUYE、SHANGYEJIHUQUANBUKUJIELE。ZUOFANGGUANBILE,GONGCHANGTINGYELE,XUDEHAIDEWEIGANLINLI,HELANGUONEIDAOCHUSHIQIGAI;JIEDAOSHANGZACAOCONGSHENG,HELANSHOUDOUAMUSITEDANYOU1500ZUOFANGZIMEIRENZUYONG”。HELANZHIYOUJINXINGMENGSHOUCHIRUDEYIHE,CAINENGSHITAMIANZAOHUIMIE。

  HELANZHEIZHONGBEICANDEJIEJU,SHUOMINGLEYIGEWANQUANYILAIYUWAIGUOZIYUANLIZUYUSHIJIEDEGUOJIASHIFEICHANGXURUODE。WUYONGZHUIYAN,XIANZAIQINGKUANGBUTONGLE,SUIRANDUIDANGSHIHELANZHEIZHONGBEICANJIEJUDEMIAOSHUYAODAHENDUOZHEKOU,DANSHIDANGSHIHELANDEQINGKUANGYOUHENDUODIFANGLEISIYUXIANZAIDEDABULIEDIAN,SUOYIHELANDEQINGKUANGQIAQIAYUSHILEYIHOUYINGGUODEQINGKUANG。JINGUANZHEIXIEQINGKUANGZAIBENGUOSIHUHENSHAOSHOUDAOZHONGSHI,DANSHITAMENJINGGAOZHEIGEGUOJIA: RUOYAOBAOCHIGUONEIFANRONG,SHOUXIANBIXUZAIHAIWAIBAOCHIQILILIANG。RENMENKENENGDUIQUESHAOZHENGZHITEQUANBUMANYI;DANSHI,RUGUOTAMENQUESHAOMIANBAO,JIUGENGHUIGANDAOXINSHENBUDING。DUIMEIGUOLAISHUO,YINGGAIYINQIZHUYIDESHICENGBEIKANCHENGSHIYIGEHAISHANGQIANGGUODEFAGUODEJIEJU。FAGUOYOUYUQILINGTUFANWEI、SHIYIDEQIHOUHEFURAODEGUOTUDENGTIAOJIANSUOZAOCHENGDEZHEIZHONGJIEJU,YIJINGZAIMEIGUOZHONGYAN。QICHU,MEIGUORENDEZUXIANZAIHAIBIANZHANLINGYIKUAIXIAZHANGDELUDI,ZHEIXIEDIFANGJINGUANBUFADA,DANSHITUDIFEIWOYOUHENDUOGANGKOU,BINGQIEKAOJINZIYUANFENGFUDEYUCHANG。ZHEIXIEZIRANTIAOJIANHEYINGGUOXUETONGDERENYIZHONGAIHAIDETIANXING,SHITAMENJIXUBAOCHIDUIHAIYANGDEPIHAOHEZHUIQIU,ERZHEIXIEZHENGSHIYIZHIQIANGDADEHAISHANGLILIANGLAIYICUNZAIDEJICHU。QICHU,JIHUMEIYIKUAIZHIMINDIDOUSHIZAIHAISHANGHUOZHESHIZAITADEYIGEJIAODADESHUGUOLI。SUOYOUDECHUKOUHEJINKOUDOUQUXIANGYUYIGEHAIANSHANG。RENMENDUIHAIYANGDEGUANXINHEDUIQIZAIGONGGONGFULISHIYEZHONGSUOQIDEZUOYONGDEZHENGQUEPINGJIA,DEDAOXUNSUERGUANGFANDICHUANBO,YUSHIYIZHONGBIGUANXINGONGGONGFULISHIYEGENGYOUYINGXIANGDEHUODONGHUOYUEQILAILE,YOUYUZAOCHUANWUZHICHONGZUERYUZHIYOUGUANDEQITATOUZIYOUJIAOSHAO,SHIHAIYUNCHENGWEIYIZHONGYOULIKETUDESIRENXINGYE。ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,XIANZAIDEQINGKUANGYOULEHENDADEBIANHUA。LILIANGDEZHONGXINBUZAIZHISHIYANHAIDIQU。XUDUOSHUKANHEBAOZHIZHENGXIANKONGHOUDIMIAOXIENEIDIDEJINGRENFAZHANHENEIDIMEIYOUBEIKAIFADEFENGFUZIYUAN。ZIBENZAINEIDIZHAODAOLEZUIHAODETOUZICHANGSUO,LAODONGZHEZHAODAOLEZUIDUODEJIUYEJIHUI,DANSHIBIANJIEBEIHULVELE,ZHEIZHONGZHENGCESHIBIANJIERUANRUOWULI。SHIJISHANGHULVELEMOXIGEWANHETAIPINGYANGYANAN,YIJIXIANGDUIYUMIXIXIBIHELIUYUZHONGYANGDEDAXIYANGYANAN。YIDANMEIGUORENZAIYICIGANDAOCONGSHIHAIYUNSHIYEYOULIKETU,KANDAOTAMENDESANMIANHAIJIANGBUJINJUNSHILILIANGRUANRUO,ERQIEGUOJIADEHAIYUNNENGLIJIWEIBORUOSHI,TAMENDEGONGTONGNULIKENENGHUIZAICIWEIMEIGUODEHAISHANGLILIANGDIANDINGJICHU。ZHIDAONEISHI,NEIXIELEJIEFAGUOYOUYUQUESHAOHAISHANGLILIANGSHIQIFAZHANSHOUDAOXIANZHIDEMEIGUOREN,KENENGHUIDUIZIJIGUOJIA,YEZHENGZAIBEIYIZHONGLEISIDEYINGUONEIZIYUANFENGFUYOUYUERHULVELEHAISHANGLILIANGDEZUOFAGANDAOSHIFENNEIJIU。

  ZAIYINGXIANGHAIQUANDEXUDUOZIRANTIAOJIANZHONG,KEYIZHUYIXIANGYIDALINEIYANGDEDILIXINGZHUANG——YIGEXIAZHANGDEBANDAO,ZHONGXINDIQUDESHANMAIJIANGQIFENCHENGLIANGGEZHAIZHANGTIAO,LIANJIEBUTONGGANGKOUDEDAOLUBIXUYANQISHENZHAN。YIDALIZHIYOUWANQUANKONGZHILEHAIYANG,CAIKEYIQUEBAOQIJIAOTONGANQUAN,YINWEIYIDALIRENBUKENENGZHIDAODIRENHUICONGKEJIANDIPINGXIANYIWAIDENAYIDIANSHANGJINXINGTURANXIJI。DANSHI,RUGUOYIDALIYOUPANGDADEHAIJUNNENGGOUJINXINGJIZHONGBUSHU,NEIMEZAIQIHAIMEIYOUZAODAODIYANZHONGPOHUAIZHIQIAN,RENGRANYOUHENDADEXIWANGQUGONGJIJISHIDIJIDI,YOUSHIDIJIAOTONGXIANDEDIJIANDUI。MEIGUOXIAZHANGDEFOLUOLIDABANDAODEDINGDUANYOUJIWEISITEGANG,JINGUANBANDAODISHIPINGTAN,RENKOUXISHAO,DANSHIZHAYIKAN,ZHEILIDEQINGKUANGHENXIANGYIDALI。XIANGSIKENENGZHISHIBIAOMIANDE;DANSHIRUGUOHAIZHANDEZHUYAOZHANCHANGSHIZAIMOXIGEWAN,TONGGUOLULUZHIDAODUANDEJIAOTONGKENENGSHIYIGEZHONGDAWENTI,BINGQIEZHEITIAOJIAOTONGXIANJIYISHOUDAOGONGJI。

  DANGHAIYANGBUJINSHIYIGEGUOJIADEBIANJINGHUOZHEBAYIGEGUOJIABAOWEIQILAI,ERQIEHAIYANGHAIBAYIGEGUOJIAFENGECHENGLIANGBUFENHUOSANBUFENSHI,KONGZHIHAIYANGJIUBUJINJINZHISHIYIZHONGYUWANGLE,ERSHIYIJIANSHEJIGUOJIACUNWANGBIBUKEQUEDESHIQINGLE。ZHEIYANGYIZHONGZIRANTIAOJIANHUOSHISHIQIHAIJUNDANSHENGHEQIANGDA,HUOSHISHIQIGUOJIARUANRUOWULI。ZHEIJIUSHIMUQIANYIDALIWANGGUOHETADESADINGDAO、XIXILIDAODEQINGKUANG。YIDALIWANGGUOGANGYICHENGLI,ZAIQICAIZHENGSHOURUHAIBUHENCHONGZUSHI,JIUYONGSHIFENCHONGPEIDEJINGLIHEZHIHUIQUCHUANGJIANYIZHIHAIJUN,SHENZHIHAITICHUYAOYONGYOUYIZHIWANQUANYOUYUDIRENDEHAIJUN。YIDALIDEHAIJUNYIQIDAOYUWEIJIDI,YAOBIYIDALUWEIJIDIHAODEDUO;YINWEIZHENGRUQIANMIANSUOZHICHUDE,BANDAOSHANGMEIYOUANQUANKEKAODEJIAOTONGXIAN,RUGUOYIZHIRUQINDELUJUNCHUYUDIDUIRENMINBAOWEIZHIZHONG,BINGQIEYOUSHOUDAOLAIZIHAISHANGDEWEIXIE,JIUHUIXIANRUJUEJING。

  BADABULIEDIANQUNDAOFENGEKAIDEAIERLANHAI,XIANGSHIYIGEGANGWANERBUSHIYIGESHIJIDEFENLIWU;DANSHILISHIYIJINGBIAOMING,TACENGJILIANHEWANGGUOZAOCHENGWEIXIEHEWEIJI。LUYISHISISHIQI,DANGFAGUOHAIJUNJIHUXIANGDANGYUYINGGUOHEHELANDELIANHEJIANDUISHI,AIERLANCHUXIANLEZUIYANZHONG、ZUIFUZADEQINGKUANG,GAIDAOJIHUQUANBUBEIDANGDIRENHEFAGUORENSUOKONGZHI。RANER,YUQISHUOAIERLANHAIDUIYINGGUOSHIYIZHONGWEIXIE——YINGGUOJIAOTONGXIANZHONGDEYIGEBORUOHUANJIE,HAIBURUSHUOTADUIFAGUOFEICHANGYOULI。YOUYUFAGUOBUGANJIAOTADEZHANJIANMAOXIANJINRUTADEXIAZHAIDESHUIYU,CAIBAZHUNBEIJINXINGDENGLUDEYUANZHENGJUNPAIZHIYINGGUONANBUHEXIBUHAIAN。ZAIJUEDINGXINGSHIKE,BEIPAIZHIYINGGUONANBUHAIANDEFAGUODAJIANDUICHEDIDIDABAILEWEIYUNEILIDEYINGGUOHEHELANDELIANHEJIANDUI;YUCITONGSHI,25SOUFAGUOKUAISUFANCHUANBEIPAIZHISHENGQIAOZHIHAIXIA,JINGONGYINGGUODEJIAOTONGXIAN。WEIYUAIERLANDEYINGGUOLUJUNCHUYUDIDUIRENMINBAOWEIZHIZHONG,CHUJINGSHIFENWEIXIAN。DANSHIBOYINHEZHIZHANHEZHANMUSIERSHIWAITAO,WANJIULEYINGGUOLUJUN。ZHEIZHONGJINGONGJIAOTONGXIANDEXINGDONG,YANGESHUOLAISHISHUYUZHANLVEWENTI,ZHEICIJINGONGYU1690NIANDEJINGONGYIYANG,DOUDUIYINGGUOZAOCHENGLEJUDADEWEIXIE。

  ZAITONGYIGESHIJILI,XIBANYAYOUYUMEIYOUYIZHIQIANGDADEHAISHANGLILIANGBAQIGEGELINGDIJINMIDILIANJIEZAIYIQI,ZHEIZHONGFENSANSUOZAOCHENGDERUANRUOYEWEIBEIBOGUANWANGappTIGONGLESHANGSHUSHENKEDEJIAOXUN。XIBANYAZAIQIQIANGSHENGSHIQIDEMOWEI,DANGSHITAHAIRENGRANZHANLINGZHENIDELAN(XIANZAIDEBILISHI)、XIXILIHEYIXIEYIDALIDELINGDI,GENGBUYONGSHUOTAZAIMEIZHOUDALUHAIYOUXUDUOZHIMINDILE。DANSHI,XIBANYADEHAISHANGLILIANGYIJINGFEICHANGRUANRUO,YINCIDANGSHIDEYIWEIJIANSHIGUANG、TOUNAOQINGXINGDEHELANRENCENGMINGQUEZHICHU: “ZAIZHENGGEXIBANYAHAIANSHANG,ZHIYOUJISOUHELANJIANCHUANZAIHANGXING;ZICONG1648NIANXIBANYAHEHELANYIHEYILAI,XIBANYAZHIYOULIAOLIAOWUJIDEJIANCHUANHEHAIYUAN,YIZHISHITAMENKAISHIGONGKAIZUYONGHELANJIANCHUANSHIWANGXIYINDUQUNDAO,CONGQIANXIBANYARENSHIFEICHANGXIAOXINDE,TAMENBUZHUNWAIGUORENJINRUXIYINDUQUNDAO……”ZHEIWEIHELANRENJIXUSHUODAO: “HENMINGXIAN,ZUOWEIXIBANYAFUBUDEXIYINDUQUNDAO(YINWEIXIBANYADESUOYOUSHOURUJIHUDOULAIZINEILI),BIXUTONGGUOYIZHIHAISHANGLILIANGYUQITOUBUXIBANYABENTUXIANGLIAN;NEIBULESIHENIDELANXIANGLIANGZHIBUNENGWEIXIBANYAJIEJINQUANLIDEBEIBANG,RUOBUYUNYONGHAIYUN,XIBANYAJIUBUNENGCONGZHEILIANGGEDIFANGDEDAODONGXI,HEPINGSHIQIXIBANYALIYONGHELANDEHAIYUNMEIYOUSHENMEWENTI,DANSHIZHANZHENGSHIQILIYONGHELANDEHAIYUNQUECUNZAIXUDUOKUNNAN。”BANGESHIJIZHIQIAN,HENGLISISHIDEZHUYAODACHENSULI,BAXIBANYAMIAOHUICHENG“YIGESHUANGTUIHEBEIBANGQIANGZHUANGYOULI,ERXINLIQUEJIDUSHUAIJIEDEGUOJIA”。ZICONGSULISHIDAIYIHOU,XIBANYAHAIJUNBUJINZAOSHOULECANZHONGDESUNSHI,ERQIEZAODAOLEHUIMIEXINGDEDAJI,BUJINSHICHIRUERQIESHIDUOLUO。QIJIEGUOZHUYAOSHIHAIYUNBEIHUI;ZHIZAOYEYESUIZHIXIAOSHI。XIBANYAZHENGFUSUOXUZHIYUAN,BUSHIYILAIYUFENSANYUGEDIDELVZAODAJIHOUXINGCUNXIALAIDEMAOYIHEGONGYE,ERSHIYIKAOJISOUYUNBAOCHUANCONGMEIZHOUYUNLAIDEBAIYINZUOWEIJUANJUANXILIUDECAIZHENGSHOURU,ERZHEIXIEYUNBAOCHUANJINGCHANGSHOUDAODIXUNHANGJIANDEJIEJI。BUZHIYICI,YOUYUSUNSHI6SOUDAFANCHUAN,SHIYUNBAOCHUANDEHUODONGTANHUANLEYINIANDUO。DANGZHANZHENGHAIZAINIDELANJINXINGSHI,HELANKONGZHILEHAIYANGPOSHIXIBANYAPAICHUDEBUDUIWUFAZOUHAILUERSHIJINGLULUZHANGTUBASHE,FUCHULEJUDADEDAIJIA;YOUYUTONGYANGDEYUANYIN,XIBANYADEBIXUPINGONGYINGDUANQUE,YIZHISHUANGFANGDACHENGLEXIANZAIKANLAISHIHENKEXIAODEXIEYI,JI: YOUHELANJIANCHUANWEIXIBANYATIGONGBIXUPIN,ZHEIYANGHELANDEJIANCHUANJIUGONGYANGLEBENGUODEDIREN,KESHIFANGUOLAIHELANRENQUEDEDAOLEZAIAMUSITEDANJINXINGJIAOHUANBEISHOUHUANYINGDEYINGBI。ZAIMEIZHOU,XIBANYARENDEBUDAOBENGUODEZHIYUAN,JINKENENGDUOZAIGONGJIHUIHUIYUANBEIHOUBAOHUZIJI;XIBANYARENZAIDIZHONGHAIWEIZAOWURUHESHANGHAI,ZHUYAOSHIYINWEIHELANRENDUIDIZHONGHAIBUGANXINGQU,ERFAGUOHEYINGGUOHAIMEIKAISHIZAINEILIZHENGDUOZHIHAIQUAN。SUIZHELISHIDEFAZHAN,XIBANYADIGUOYOUYUMEIYOUHAIYUN,YINCIYUANBENSHUYUTADENIDELAN、NEIBULESI、XIXILI、MEINUOKADAO、HAWANEI、MANILAHEYAMAIJIAXIANGJIBEIBIEGUODUOZOU。ZONGZHI,XIBANYAHAIYUNDEHUIMIEKENENGCHENGWEITAQUANMIANSHUAITUIDEYIGEZHENGZHAO,TAYISHIXIBANYAXIANRUSHENYUANDEYIGEZHUYAOYUANYIN,DAOMUQIANWEIZHI,XIBANYAHAIMEIYOUWANQUANBAITUOZHEIZHONGKUNJING。

  CHULEALASIJIA,MEIGUOZAIBENTUYIWAIHAIMEIYOULINGDI——MEIYOUYIKUAIDIFANGTONGGUOLULUBUNENGDIDA。MEIGUODEWAIXINGSHIQIJIHUMEIYOUSHENMETUCHUBUZAOCHENGDETEBIEBORUODEBUFEN,BINGQIESUOYOUBIJIAOZHONGYAODEBUFENDOUHENRONGYIDIDA——CHENGCHUANBIANYI,CHENGHUOCHEXUNSU。JIBIANZUIBORUODEBIANJINGTAIPINGYANGYANANYEYUANLIKENENGDEZUIWEIXIANDEDIREN。MEIGUODEGUONEIZIYUANYUXIANSHIXUYAOXIANGBI,SHIJIQIFENGFUDE。YONGYIWEIFAGUOJUNRENDUIZUOZHESHUODEHUALAISHUO: “ZAIBEIBOGUANWANGappDEXIAOTIANDILI”,BEIBOGUANWANGappNENGGOUWUXIANQIDIYIKAOZIJISHENGHUOXIAQU。DANSHIYIDANZHEIGEXIAOTIANDIBEIYITIAOXINDETONGGUODIXIADEMAOYIHANGXIANQINFANLE,MEIGUOJIUKENENGMENGRANHUANXINGNEIXIECENGFANGQIFENXIANGZAIHAIYANGSHANGXIANGYOUGONGTONGQUANLIDEREN。

影响海权的自然条件(3)

LINGTUFANWEI——YINGXIANGYIGEGUOJIANENGFOUFAZHANCHENGWEIHAISHANGQIANGGUODEZIRANTIAOJIANZHONGDEZUIHOUYITIAOSHILINGTUFANWEI。ZHEILISUOSHUODELINGTUFANWEIZHISHEJIGUOTUBENSHEN,BUSHEJIJUZHUZAINEILIDERENMIN。ZHEIYANGJIUKEYIYONGJIAOSHAODEJIJUHUAJIANDANDISHUOMINGZHEIYIWENTI。

YINGXIANGHAIQUANFAZHANDELINGTUFANWEI,BUZHISHIZHIYIGEGUOJIAZONGMIANJIDEPINGFANGYINGLISHU,ERQIEHAIBAOKUOTADEHAIANXIANDEZHANGDUHEJIANGYAOBEIKAOLVDEGANGKOUDETEDIAN。YOUGUANZHEIXIE,YINGGAISHUODILITIAOJIANHEZIRANTIAOJIANSHIYIHUISHI。HAIANXIANDEZHANGDUYIJURENKOUDEDUOSHAOSHIYIGEGUOJIAQIANGRUODEGENYUAN。ZAIZHEIYIDIANSHANG,YIGEGUOJIAXIANGYIGEBAOLEI,JINGWEIBUDUIBIXUYUQISUOBAOWEIDECHANGDIXIANGPIPEI。ZAIZUIJINDENANBEIZHANZHENGZHONGBEIBOGUANWANGappZHAODAOLEYIGEDAJIADOUHENSHUXIDESHILI。RUGUONANFANGYOUZHONGDUODERENKOU,RENMINYOUFUYOUSHANGWUJINGSHEN,BINGQIE,YOUYOUYIZHIYUHAISHANGQIANGGUODEQITACAILI、WULIXIANGCHENGDEHAIJUN,NEIMETADEMANZHANGDEHAIANXIANHEWUSHUGEGANGWAN,JIUSHIQIQIANGDALILIANGDEZUCHENGYAOSU。BEIFANGRENMINHEDANGSHIDEBEIFANGZHENGFUSHIFENDEYIYUDUIZHENGGENANBUHAIANSHISHILEYOUXIAOFENGSUO。ZHEISHIYIGEWEIDADEGONGJI,SHIYIGEFEICHANGWEIDADEGONGJI;DANSHI,RUGUONANFANGRENKOUZAIDUOYIXIE,ERQIEYOUYONGYOUZHONGDUODEHAIYUAN,NEIMEYAOXIANGQUDEZHEIZHONGCHENGJIUSHIBUKENENGDE。DANSHINEILIDEQINGKUANGBUSHIXIANGYISHANGJIASHEDENEIYANG,ERSHIMIANDUIZHEBUJINBUSHIYUHAISHANGSHENGHUO,ERQIESHULIANGBUZUDEQUANTIJUMIN,ZHEIYANGDEFENGSUOWANQUANKENENGDE。NEIXIEHUIYIFENGSUOSHIZENYANGJIANCHIXIAQUDERENMEN,HEZAIZHANZHENGZHONGDEJUEDABUFENSHIJIANLIZHIXINGFENGSUORENWUDEGEJIJIANCHUAN,SHENZHIZAIDANGSHINEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIAZHEIGEJIHUASHIWANQUANZHENGQUEDE。DANSHIMIANDUIYIZHIQIANGDADEHAIJUN,ZHEIGEJIHUASHIBUKENENGSHIXIANDE。BEIFANGJIANTINGFENSANZAINANFANGHAIANXIANSHANGDEBUDAOZHIYUAN,TAMENMIANDUIZHEBIANYUNANFANGBUDUIJINXINGMIMIJIZHONGDEYIDAPIANNEILUSHUISHANGJIAOTONGWANG,SHIYIDANJIANHUOXIAOFENDUIJIANSHOUZAIZHENWEISHANGDE。ZAIDIYIDAOSHUISHANGJIAOTONGXIANDEHOUMIAN,SHIYIXIEJIAOZHANGDEGANGWANHEFENBUZAIGECHUDEJIANGUYAOSAI,NANFANGJIANCHUANZONGNENGTUIRUZHEIXIEGANGWANHEYAOSAI,DUOBIZHUIZONGHUOZHEDEDAOBAOHU。RUGUONANFANGYOUYIZHIHAIJUNNENGGOULIYONGSHANGSHUZHEIXIEYOULITIAOJIAN,HUOZHELIYONGBEIFANGJIANTINGDEFENSANBUSHU,BEIFANGJIANTINGJIUBUGANZAIJINXINGFENSANBUSHULE;TAMENWEILEXIANGHUZHIYUANJIUBUDEBUJIZHONGQILAI,ZHEIYANGNANFANGJIUKETONGGUOXUDUOXIAODEDANSHISHIKELIYONGDETONGDAOSHISHIDUIWAIMAOYILE。DANSHI,XIANGNANBUHAIANNEIYANG,YOUYUHAIANXIANZHANGBINGQIEYOUXUDUOJINKOU,KENENGHUICHENGWEIYIZHONGLILIANGDEYUANQUAN,YOUYUZHEIXIETEDIAN,YEKENENGHUIZAODAOYANZHONGDESUNHAI。DATONGMIXIXIBIHEZHEIJIANDASHI,MINGXIANDISHUOMINGZHEICHANGZHANZHENGYAOZAIZHENGGENANFANGCHIXUDIJINXINGXIAQU。BEIFANGZHANJIANZHENGCONGHAIANXIANSHANGDEMEIYIGEQUEKOUJINRU。CENGYOULIYUNANFANGYUNZAICAIFUHEZHIYUANNANFANGTUOLIMEIGUODEMAOYIQUDAOZHUANERCHENGWEIBULIYINSU,ZHEIXIEHELIUBADIRENYINJINLENEIDI。NANFANGGEGEDIQUDAOCHUCHENGXIANYIPIANJINGHUANGHEBUAN,DUIKONGZHIJUSHIGANDAOWUNENGWEILI。ZHEIXIEDIQURUGUOSHIZAIYIXIEBIJIAOLEGUANDERENDEZHUCHIXIA,KENENGHUISHIYIGEGUOJIA,ZAIJINGGUOYICHANGXIAOHAOJUDADEZHANZHENGZHIHOURENGRANBAOCHIHUOLI。HAIQUANDEZUOYONGGUOQUCONGMEIYOUXIANGZAIZHEICHANGDOUZHENGZHONGZHEIYANGZHONGYAO,HUOZHEZHEIYANGGENGJUYOUJUEDINGXINGYINGXIANG。ZHEICHANGDOUZHENGJIANGJUEDINGSHIJIELISHIDEJINCHENG,YEJIZAIBEIMEIZHOUDALUSHANGJIXUBAOCHIYIGEQIANGDADEGUOJIA,ERBUSHIFENLIEWEIJIGEDIDUIDEGUOJIA。BEIFANGLIANBANGSUIRANDUIGUOQUSUOQUDEDERONGYUGANDAOZIHAO,BINGQIECHENGRENSUOQUDEDEWEIDACHENGJIUYINGGUIYUHAIJUNYOUSHI,DANSHINEIXIELEJIEZHEIXIESHISHIDEMEIGUOREN,JUEBUYINGWANGJITIXINGTAMENGUOYUZIXINDETONGBAO,TAMENSUOYIHUOSHENG,SHIYINWEINANFANGBUJINMEIYOUHAIJUN,BUSHIYIGEYIHANGHAIWEIYEDEMINZU,ERQIETADERENKOUYUTABIXUFANGYUDEHAIANXIANDEZHANGDUYESHIJIBUXIANGCHENGDE。

影响海权的自然条件(4)

RENKOU——ZAIKAOLVLEYIGEGUOJIADEZIRANTIAOJIANZHIHOU,JINJIEZHEYINGGAIZIXIYANJIUYIXIAYINGXIANGHAIQUANFAZHANDERENKOUTEZHENG。ZAIRENKOUTEZHENGZHONGSHOUXIANYAOKAOLVDESHISHENGHUOZAITADELINGTUSHANGDERENSHU,YINWEIRENKOUYUGANGCAITAOLUNGUODELINGTUFANWEIYOUZHEMIQIEDELIANXI。YIJINGSHUOGUOJIULINGTUFANWEIERYAN,BUJINJINSHIZHIPINGFANGYINGLISHU,ERSHIYAOKAOLVYUHAIQUANYOUGUANDEHAIANXIANDEZHANGDUHETEDIAN。TONGYANGJIURENKOUERLUN,BUJINJINJISUANRENKOUZONGSHU,ERQIEBIXUBADANGSHUISHOUHUOZHISHAOSHIKEYIGUYONGZAIJIANTINGSHANGHEKEYISHENGCHANHAIJUNWUZHIDERENSHUJISUANZAINEI。

  LIRU,CONGFAGUOGEMINGZHIQIAN,YIZHIDAOGEMINGZHIHOUDEJICIDAZHAN,SUIRANFAGUOZAIRENKOUSHULIANGSHANGYUANYUANCHAOGUOLEYINGGUO;DANSHI,JIUZONGDEHAIQUANERYAN,ZHEIBAOKUOPINGSHIMAOYIHEJUNSHIXIAOLV,FAGUOYUANBURUYINGGUO。ZAIJUNSHIXIAOLVZHEIGEWENTISHANG,FAGUODELIESHIJIUXIANDEGENGWEITUCHU,YINWEIJIUZHANZHENGBAOFASHIDEJUNSHIZHUNBEIERYAN,FAGUODUOCICHUYUYOUSHI,DANSHIFAGUOBUNENGBAOCHIZHEIZHONGYOUSHI。LIRU1778NIAN,DANGZHANZHENGBAOFASHI,FAGUOANZHAOTAZHUCEDEHAIYUAN,YICIJIUNENGPEIBEI50SOUZHANJIAN,XIANGFAN,YINGGUOYOUYUTADEHAISHANGLILIANGLAIYICUNZAIDEHAIYUNBIANBUYUSHIJIEGEDI,SHITAZAIGUONEIZHENGJIHAIYUANPEIBEI40SOUZHANJIANDOUHENKUNNAN。DANSHIDAOLE1782NIAN,YINGGUOFUXIANYIHUOKEYIXUNSUFUXIANYIDEJIANCHUANJIUYOU120SOU,ERFAGUOQUECONGWEICHAOGUO71SOU。1840NIANDANGYING、FALIANGGUOZAILIFANTEDIQUZAICICHUYUZHANZHENGBIANYUANSHI,DANGDAIYIWEIYOUZAOYIDEFAGUOJUNGUAN,ZAICHENGZANFAGUOJIANDUIDEGAOXIAOHEJIANDUISILINGDEJIECHUCAIGAN,ZAIBIAODAFAGUOJIANDUIYUYIZHILILIANGBUXIANGSHANGXIADEDIRENZUOZHAN,DUIZUOZHANJIEGUOCHONGMANXINXINSHI,JIXUSHUODAO: “ZAIBEIBOGUANWANGappNENGGOUJIZHONG21SOUZHANJIANZUCHENGFENJIANDUIZHIHOUJIUMEIYOUYUBEIYIZHANJIANLE;MEIYOUYISOUZHANJIANZAI6GEYUEZHINEINENGGOUFUYI。”ZHEIBUJINJINSHIYOUYUQUESHAOZHANJIANHEQUESHAOHAODEZHUANGBEI,JINGUANZHEILIANGZHEDOUSHIBIXUDE。TAJIXUSHUODAO: “YINWEIBEIBOGUANWANGappWEILEPEIBEI21SOUZHANJIAN,BAZHUCEDECHUANYUANDOUYONGWANLE,ZAIGEDIJIANLIDECHANGSHEZHENGMUJIGOU,BUNENGTIGONGRENYUANQUTIHUANYIJINGXUNHANG3NIANYISHANGDEHAIYUAN。”

  ZHEIYANGJINXINGDEDUIBIBIAOMING,ZAICHIXUZUOZHANNENGLIHUOYUBEIYILILIANGFANGMIANDECHAYISHENZHIBIHUODONGZAIHAISHANGDESHILICHAYIHAIYAODA,YINWEIPANGDADEJIANCHUANQUNHUODONGZAIHAISHANG,CHUHAIYUANWAI,HAIXUYAODAPIGUYUANCONGSHIGEZHONGBUTONGDESHOUGONGZUOYE,LAIFUZHUHAIJUNQICAIDEZHIZAOHEXIULI,HUOCONGSHIQITADUOSHAOYUHAIYANGHUOYUGEZHONGJIANCHUANYOUGUANDEXINGYE,CONGSHIZHEIXIELEISIXINGYEDEREN,HAOWUYIWENCONGYIKAISHIJIUYAOYOUSHIYINGHAISHANGXUYAODENENGLI。YOUYIJIANYISHISHUOMINGLEYINGGUOYIWEIJIECHUDEHAIJUNJIANGLINGAIDEHUA·PEILUOJUESHIDUICISHISHIHENYOUJIANSHIDE。1793NIAN,DANGZHANZHENGBAOFASHI,ZHAOYANGYULEQUESHAOHAIYUANDEWENTI。YOUYUJIYUCHUHAI,AIDEHUA·PEILUOJUESHI,CHULEPEIBEIYIXIEWEICHUGUOHAIDERENYUANYIWAI,BIEWUTATU,YUSHITAMINGLINGTADEJUNGUANMENXUNZHAOKENISHENKUANGGONGCHONGDANGHAIYUAN。CONGTADUIZHEIXIEKUANGGONGDESHENGHUOHUANJINGHEZHIYEDEWEIXIANXINGDELEJIEJINXINGTUIDUAN,RENWEIZHEIXIEKUANGGONGJIANGNENGGOUXUNSUSHIYINGHAISHANGSHENGHUODEXUYAO。JIEGUOZHENGMINGTASHIHENMINGZHIDE,YINWEIZHEIYANGZUOBIMIANLEYIZHONGBUKEBIMIANDEDANGE,BINGQIEHAIFEICHANGXINGYUNDIZAIYICIDANDUZUOZHANZHONGFUHUOLEDIYILIUDEZHUANGYOUDAPAODEKUAISUFANCHUAN,ZUIYOUJIAOYIDESHI,JINGUANZHEIXIEKUANGGONGCAIFUYIJIGEXINGQI,ERTAMENDEDUISHOUYIJINGFUYIYINIANDUO,DANSHISHUANGFANGSUOZAOSHOUDEZHUYAOSUNSHIJIHUBUXIANGSHANGXIA。

  KENENGYOURENGUZHIDIRENWEI,ZHEIZHONGYUBEIYILILIANGYIJINGSHIQULEXIRIDENEIZHONGZHONGYAOXING,YINWEIZHIZAOXIANDAIJIANTINGHEWUQIXUYAOHENZHANGSHIJIAN,ERQIEXIANDAIGUOJIAFAZHANBENGUODEQUANBUWUZHUANGLILIANGDEMUDE,SHIWEILEZAIZHANZHENGBAOFASHI,ZAIDIRENNENGGOUZUZHIYIZHITONGDENGDELILIANGZHIQIAN,NENGXUNSUDIJIDIRENYIZHIMINGXINGDEDAJI。YONGDAJIASUOSHUXIDEYIZHONGSHUOFA: YAOSHIYIGEGUOJIADESUOYOUDIKANGZUZHIMEIYOUSHIJIANFAHUIZUOYONG;YAOSHOUXIANDAJIYIJINGZUZHIQILAIDEJIANDUI,RUGUOJIANDUITOUJIANGLE,QIYUDEZUZHIJIGOUJIUQIBUDAOSHENMEZUOYONGLE。ZHEIZHONGSHUOFAYOUTAYIDINGDEZHENGQUEXING,DANSHILINGYIFANGMIAN,JINGUANCONGCHENGDUSHANGLAIKAN,YUBEIYILILIANGDEZHONGYAOXINGXIANZAIBIGUOQUSHAOYOUXUNSE,DANSHIYOUYIZHIYUBEIYILILIANGZONGSHIZHENGQUEDE。JIADINGLIANGZHISHIJISHANGDAIBIAOLIANGGEGUOJIAXIANSHIQUANBULILIANGDEJIANDUIXIANGYU,RUGUOQIZHONGYIZHIJIANDUIBEICUIHUILE,ERLINGYIZHIJIANDUIRENGRANSHIYUZHANDOU,NEIME,JIANDUIBEICUIHUIDEYIFANG,NENGGOUYILAIQIHAIJUNJINXINGNEICHANGZHANZHENGDEXIWANGXIANZAIBIGUOQUGENGXIAOLE;JIEGUOJIANGSHICANZHONGDESHIBAI,BINGQIESHIBAIDECANZHONGCHENGDUWANQUANYUGUOJIADUIHAISHANGLILIANGDEYILAICHENGDUCHENGZHENGBI。RUGUODANGSHIYINGGUOJIANDUITONGLIANHEJIANDUIYIYANG,SHIQIGUOJIALILIANGDEZHUYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,RUGUOTELAFAERJIAJIAOHAIZHANZHONGBEIDABAIDESHIYINGGUO,NEIMEDUIYINGGUODEDAJIYIDINGHUIBIDUIFAGUODEDAJIDADEDUO。ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,TELAFAERJIAJIAOHAIZHANDUIYINGGUORUTONGAOSITELICIHUIZHAN [ ZHU: 1805NIAN12YUE2RINAPOLUNJIBAIAOELIANJUN,LIANJUNBEIJIAN27,000REN,GENJUPULEISIBAOHEYUE,SHENSHENGLUOMADIGUOHUANGDIFULANCIERSHISHIQULEDAPIANLINGTU,CHENGWEIAODILIDEFULANCIYISHI。1806NIANAODILIDIGUOYEBEIXIAOMIE。 ] DUIAODILI,YENAZHIZHAN [ YIZHEZHU: YIBANSHIZHINAPOLUNZAI1806NIANZHIHUIFAJUNLIANGYIZAIAOERSHITAITEHEYENAJIBAIPULUSHIJUN,PUJUNSISHANG22,000REN,BEIFU18,000REN。DAO11YUEZHONGXUN,ZHENGGEPULUSHIDOUYICHUYUNAPOLUNDEKONGZHIZHIXIA。 ] DUIPULUSHIYIYANG;YIGEDIGUOYOUYUTADEJUNSHIBUDUIBEICUIHUIHUOZHEBEIWAJIE,YIJINGCHUYUBEIZHENGFUDEDIWEI,JUSHUO,CUIHUIHEWAJIEDIJUNSHINAPOLUNZUIXIAIDEMUBIAO。

  DANSHI,BEIBOGUANWANGappZHIXUHUIGUGUOQUZHEIXIEJUYOUTESHUXINGDEZAINAN,JIUNENGSHUOMINGDIGUYUBEIYILILIANGSHIZHENGQUEDEMA?ZHEIZHONGYUBEIYILILIANGSHIYIZHEILISUOKAOLVDESHIHEJUNSHISHENGHUODEJUMINSHUWEIJICHUDE。GANGCAITIDAODEYIXIEDAJI,SHIYOUYIXIEJIECHUDEYOUCAINENGDEREN,ZHIHUIYIXIEXUNLIANYOUSU、YOUTUANJIEJINGSHENHEYOUWEIWANGDEWUZHUANGBUDUIJINXINGDE。CHUCIZHEIWAI,BEIDAJIDEMUBIAOSHINEIXIEYOUYUYISHIDAOLEZIJIDELIESHIHEYIQIANDESHIBAI、SHIQIDUOSHAOYOUXIEDILUODEDUISHOU。AOSITELICIHUIZHANSHIJINJIEZHEWUERMUHUIZHANZHIHOUJINXINGDE,ZAIWUERMU,3WANMINGAODILIRENBUJINGYIZHANJIUFANGXIALEWUQI,YINCI,CONGQIANDELISHICENGSHIYIBUDALIANGJIZAIAODILIDESHIBAIHEFAGUOSHENGLIDELISHI。TELAFAERJIAJIAOHAIZHANFASHENGZAIJIHULIANZAOSHIBAIDEXUNHANGZHANZHIHOU,QUEQIEDISHUOSHIFASHENGZAIYICIZHANYIZHIHOU。ZAIWANGQIAN,DANSHIRENGSUANJINQI,KEZHUISHUDAODUILIANHEJIANDUILIDEXIBANYARENDESHENGWENSENTEJIAOHAIZHANHEFAGUORENDENILUOHEKOUZHIZHAN。CHULEZAIYENA,ZHEIXIEHUIMIEXINGDEDAJI,BUZHISHIDANCHUNDESHIBAI,ERSHIJUEDINGXINGDEDAJI,ZAIYENAZHANYIZHONG,SHUANGFANGZAISHULIANG、ZHUANGBEIHEZONGDEZHANZHENGZHUNBEISHANGSHIBUTONGDE。YOUYUZHEIZHONGBUTONG,SHIYENAZHANYIBUSHIYUYONGLAIZUOWEIKAOLVYICIDANDUDESHENGLIKEYICHANSHENGSHENMEYANGJIEGUODEZHANYI。

  YINGGUOXIANZAISHISHIJIESHANGZUIQIANGDADEHAIYANGGUOJIA,ZAIZHENGQIHEZHUANGJIASHIDAI,TABAOCHILEZAIFANCHUANHEMUCHUANSHIDAISUOJUYOUDENEIZHONGYOUSHI。FAGUOHEYINGGUOSHILIANGGEYONGYOUZUIQIANGDAHAIJUNDEGUOJIA;DANSHI,QIJINWEIZHIYIGEXUANERWEIJUEDEWENTISHI,RUGUOKEYIBATAMENCONGSHIHAIZHANDEWUZHILILIANGKANCHENGSHIXIANGDENGDE,JIUJINGNAYIGEGUOJIAGENGQIANGDAXIENI?YIDANFASHENGCHONGTU,NENGGOUSHEXIANGYOUYURENYUANHUOZHESHIZHUNBEISHANGDEBUTONG,YICIZHANDOUHUOYICIZHANYIKENENGHUICHANSHENGLILIANGDUIBIDEJUEDINGXINGCHAYIMA?RUGUOBUNENGCHANSHENGJUEDINGXINGDECHAYI,NEIMEHOUBEILILIANGJIANGKAISHISHENGXIAO。SHOUXIANSHIYOUZUZHIDEHOUBEILILIANG,RANHOUSHIYIHANGHAIWEIYEDERENYUAN、SHULIANDEJIXIEGONGRENHECAIFUDENGHOUBEILILIANGKAISHIQIZUOYONG。RENMENSIHUYIJINGWANGJILEYINGGUOZAIJIXIEJISHUFANGMIANDELINGXIANDIWEI,TAYOUYIZHIYOUJIXIEGONGRENZUCHENGDEHOUBEILILIANG,TAMENNENGGOUHENKUAISHIZIJITONGXIAOXIANDAIZHUANGJIAJIAN。CIWAI,TADESHANGYEHEGONGYEYOUYUSHOUZHANZHENGDEQIANLEI,DUOYUDEHAIYUANHEJIXIEGONGRENJIANGHUIZHUANYIDAOWUZHUANGJIANCHUANSHANGQU。

  HOUBEILILIANGNENGFOUFAHUIZUOYONGDEQUANBUWENTISHI: ZAIXIANDAIZHANZHENGTIAOJIANXIA,LIANGGESHIJUNLIDIDEDUISHOU,ZAIYICIZHANYIZHONG,RUGUOYIFANGBEIDABAI,NEISHIYOUKENENGHENKUAIQUDEJUEDINGXINGDEJIEGUOMA?DAOMUQIANWEIZHIHAIZHANHAIMEIYOUZUOCHUHUIDA。PULUSHIDUIAODILIDEJUEDINGXINGSHENGLI,DEGUODUIFAGUODEJUEDINGXINGSHENGLI,DOUSHIYIGEJIAOQIANGDEGUOJIAZHANSHENGYIGEJIAORUODEGUOJIA,BUGUANQIRUANRUOSHIYOUYUZIRANYUANYIN,HUOZHESHIYOUYUZHENGFUDEWUNENG。XIANGSHIJIANTUODENEIYANGZHANGDEPULIEWENZHIZHAN [ ZHU: 1877NIANETUZHANZHENGQIJIAN,PULIEWENZHIZHANGONGJINXINGLESICI,QIANSANCISHIEJUNJINGONGPULIEWEN,DANSHANGWANGCANZHONGMEIYOUDESHOU。DISICISHITUJUNTUWEI,BEIEJUNDABAI,TUIHUIPULIEWEN,RILUOQIANTOUJIANG,JIESHULECHIXU143TIANDEDIKANG。 ] ,RUGUOTUERQIYOUKEDONGYUANDEGUOJIAHOUBEILILIANG,ZHEIDUIZHANZHENGDEJIEJUHUIFASHENGZENMEYANGDEYINGXIANGNI?

  ZHENGRUDAJIADOUCHENGRENDE,SHIJIANSHIZHANZHENGZHONGYIZHONGZUIZHONGYAODEYINSU,RUGUOZHENSHIZHEIYANG,NEIMEDUIYUYIGEGUOJIALAISHUO,JINGUANQIZHUYAOLINGDAORENGENBENBUSHIJUNRENCHUSHEN,QIRENMINTONGSUOYOUZIYOURENMINYIYANG,BUZANCHENGHUADAQIANJIANLIPANGDADEJUNSHIJIGOU,DANZHISHAOYINGSHEFASHIJUNSHIJIGOUYOUZUGOUDELILIANG,YIBEIYIDANZHANZHENGBAOFANENGYINGDEBIYAODESHIJIAN,BARENMINDEJINGSHENHECAIZHIZHUANYIDAOZHANZHENGSUOXUYAODEXINDEHUODONGSHANGLAI。RUGUOXIANYOUDELILIANG,WULUNSHILUSHANGDEHUOSHIHAISHANGDEDOUHENQIANGDA,JISHICHUYUYIZHONGBULIDEDIWEI,ZHEIGEGUOJIAKEYIJINLIYIKAOQIZIRANZIYUANHELILIANG——SHULIANG、CAIFUHEGEZHONGNENGLIDEYOUSHIJINXINGPANBO。CONGLINGYIGEFANGMIANLAIKAN,RUGUOZHEIGEGUOJIAYONGYOUDEBUDUIHENKUAIBEIXIAOMIEHUOBEIJIKUI,NEIME,ZUIHAODEZIRANZIYUANYEBUNENGSHIQIBAITUOQURUDEJINGDI。RUGUOTADEDIRENSHIMINGZHIDE,YEBUNENGSHIQIZAIWEILAIJINXINGBAOFU。ZAIJIAOXIAODEZHANCHANGSHANGJINGCHANGTINGDAOZHEIYANGYIZHONGSHUOFA: “RUGUOMOUMOUNENGGOUZAIJIANCHISHAOZHANGYIDIANSHIJIAN,ZHEILIBIANNENGDEJIULE,HUOZHENEILIJIUKEWANCHENGRENWULE。”ZHENGRURENZAISHENGBINGQIJIANCHANGTINGSHUO: “ZHIYAOZHEIGEBINGRENNENGGOUZAIJIANCHIYIDUANSHIJIAN,TADETIZHIJIUNENGSHITATUOLIWEIXIAN。”

  XIANZAIYINGGUOZAIMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGJIUSHISHANGMIANSUOSHUODEZHEIYANGYIGEGUOJIA。HELANGUOQUSHIZHEIYANGYIGEGUOJIA,TABUYUANYIFUCHUDAIJIA,RUGUOTADUOGUOLEZAINAN,YEJINSHIJIAOXING。HELANWEIDADEZHENGZHIJIADEWEITEXIEDAO: “HELANRENZAIHEPINGSHIQIHEYOUYUHAIPAYURENJUELIE,BUHUIXIAJUEXINYUXIANHUAQIANSHIZIJIDEGUOJIAQIANGDAQILAI。HELANRENDETEDIANSHI,CHUFEIWEIXIANJIUZAIYANQIAN,FOUZETAMENCAIBUHUIXINGANQINGYUANDIBAQIANYONGZAIGUOFANGSHANG,BEIBOGUANWANGappXIANZAIBIXUHEZHEIYANGDERENDAJIAODAO,TAMENZAIYINGGAIJIESHENGDEDIFANGHUIHUOLANGFEI,ERCHANGCHANGZAITAMENYINGGAIHUAQIANDEDIFANGQUEYOUSHIFENLINSE。”

  ZAIZHEIGEWENTISHANG,BEIBOGUANWANGappDEGUOJIAYEYINGJIESHOUZHEIZHONGZHIZE,ZHEISHIJUSHIZHUMUDESHI。MEIGUOBUYONGYOUJUYOUFANGYUNENGLIDEDUN,DUOZAIZHEIZHONGDUNDEHOUMIANKEYIZHENGQUSHIJIANFAZHANBENGUODEHOUBEILILIANG。ZHIYUNENGGOUCHONGFENMANZUMEIGUOKENENGXUYAODEHAIYUANYOUZAINALINI?YUHAIANXIANHERENKOUXIANGCHENGDEZHEIZHONGZIYUAN,ZHINENGCONGYIGEGUOJIADESHANGCHUANHEYUSHANGCHUANYOUGUANDEGONGYEZHONGQUXUNZHAO,ZHEIXIEMEIGUOXIANSHIHAIBUCUNZAI。BUGUANZHEIXIEJIANTINGSHANGDESHUISHOUSHIBENGUORENHUOZHESHIGUISHUMEIGUODEWAIGUOYIMIN,ZHEIBINGMEIYOUSHENMEGUANXI,RUGUOBAOFAZHANZHENG,MEIGUOZAIHAISHANGDELILIANGZUYISHITAMENDANGZHONGDEDADUOSHURENNENGGOUHUIDAOMEIGUO。RUGUOSHUYIQIANJIDEWAIGUORENNENGBEICHENGRENYOUXUANJUQUAN,NEIME,ZAIZHANJIANSHANGJITAMENFENPEIZHANDOUGANGWEIJIUMEIYOUSHENMEWENTILE。

JINGUANDUIYUBENTIDETAOLUNYIJINGYOUXIELITILE,DANSHIKEYICHENGREN,CONGSHIYUHAISHANGSHIYEYOUGUANDEZHONGDUORENKOU,XIANZAIYUCONGQIANYIYANG,SHIHAIQUANDEYIZHONGZHUYAOYINSU。MEIGUOZAIZHEIFANGMIANSHIBUZUDE,YINCIMEIGUOZHIYOUBAHAIQUANDEJICHUJIANLIZAIXUANGUABENGUOGUOQIDEDAPISHANGCHUANSHANG。

 

关闭

| | | | | |

版权所有:贝博官网app_贝博体育app手机版 : 西安航空职业技术学院     备案号:  陕ICP备09016295号-2

地址: 陕西省西安市阎良区迎宾大道500号      邮编: 710089
联系邮箱: 在线QQ:2873495163

贝博官网app_贝博体育app手机版 网易电竞_网易电竞平台_【官网首页】 足球彩票app哪个靠谱_网上买足彩的正规app-安全购彩 365体育投注_365体育投注首页_【官网首页】