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讲武堂第一期——海权组成的因素(2)

2013年12月03日 11:24  点击: []

影响海权的自然条件(5)

  MINZUTEDIAN——XIAMIANYAOKAOLVDESHIMINZUTEDIANHEMINZUXIXINGDUIFAZHANHAIQUANDEYINGXIANG。

  RUGUOHAIQUANZHENZHENGJIANLIZAIYIZHONGGUANGFANDEPINGSHIMAOYIDEJICHUZHISHANG,CONGSHISHANGYEDEXIXINGWANGWANGBIRANSHIYIKAOHAIYANGQIANGDAQILAIDEMINZUDEXIANZHUTEDIAN。LISHIYIJINGHAOWULIWAIDIKENDINGLEZHEIGESHISHI。CHULUOMARENZHIWAI,ZAIMEIYOUYIGEYUCIXIANGFANDEZHIDEYINQIZHUYIDELIZI。

  SUOYOUDERENDOUZHUIQIULIRUN,BINGQIEDOUHUODUOHUOSHAODIAIQIAN;DANSHI,ZHUIQIULIRUNDEFANGFAJIANGHUIDUISHANGYEDEMINGYUNHEJUZHUZAIYIGEDIQUDERENMINDELISHIQIDAOZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。

  RUGUOLISHISHIKEXINDE,XIBANYARENHETAMENDETONGZUPUTAOYAREN,XUNQIUCAIFUDEFANGFABUJINYOUSUNYUMINZUDETEDIAN,ERQIESHIDUIXINGWANGFADADESHANGYEDEZHIMINGDAJI;YESHIDUISHANGYELAIYICUNZAIDEGONGYEDEZHIMINGDAJI,ZUIZHONGSHIDUIJINGCUOWUTUJINGQUDEDEGUOJIACAIFUDEZHIMINGDAJI。ZHEIZHONGHUOLIYUANWANG,ZAITAMENSHENSHANGCHANSHENGLEKEPADETANLAN,SUOYITAMENZAIXINFAXIANDECUJINOUZHOUGUOJIASHANGYEHEHAIYUNFAZHANDEXINSHIJIE——MEIZHOUDALU,BUSHIZAIXUNZHAOXINDEGONGYEJICHU,SHENZHIYEBUSHIZAIJINXINGJIANKANGDETANSUOHESHIRENXINGFENDEMAOXIANHUODONG,ERSHIZAIXUNZHAOJINYIN。XIBANYARENYOUXUDUOYOUXIUPINZHI,TAMENYONGGAN,YOUJINQUXIN,YOUJIEZHI,NENGGOURENSHOUJIKU,REQINGBINGQIEYOUQIANGLIEDEMINZUGAN。XIBANYARENCHULEJUYOUZHEIXIEYOUXIUPINZHIZHIWAI,TAMENHAIYOUYOULIDEDILIWEIZHIHECHUYUYOULIDIWEIDEGANGKOU。SHISHISHANG,YESHIXIBANYARENZUIXIANZHANLINGLEMEIZHOUDALUDEDABUFENHEYIXIEFURAODEDIFANG,BINGQIEZAIHENZHANGDESHIQINEIMEIYOUYIGENENGYUZHIJINGZHENGDEDUISHOU。XIBANYAZAIFAXIANMEIZHOUDALUZHIHOUDE100NIANLI,ZAIOUZHOUYIZHISHIQIZHUDAOZUOYONGDEGUOJIA,TAWANQUANNENGGOUQIWANGZAISUOYOUDEHAIJUNQIANGGUOZHONGJUSHOUWEI。DANSHIZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,SHIJIQINGKUANGQIAQIAYUZHIXIANGFAN。ZICONG1571NIANDELEBANTUOZHIZHANYILAI,JINGUANXIBANYACANJIAGUODUOCIZHANZHENG,DANSHIZAIXIBANYADEHAIZHANLISHISHANGQUEMEIYOULIUXIACHENGGONGDEJUYOUZHONGYAOYIYIDEGUANGHUIPIANZHANG。YOUYUQIMAOYISHUAIBAI,ZAOCHENGLEZHANJIANJIABANSHANGSUOBIAOXIANCHUDESHIRENSHANGNAOJINDE,YOUSHISHIHENHUANGMIUKEXIAODEBENZHUO。BURONGZHIYI,ZHEIYANGDEJIEGUOBUNENGJIANDANDIJINGUIJIUYUYIZHONGYUANYIN。XIBANYAZHENGFUHENKENENGZAIXUDUOFANGMIANSHUFUHESHENZHICUICANLESIRENQIYEDEZIYOUJIANKANGFAZHAN。DANSHIYIGEWEIDAMINZUDETEDIANHUICHONGPOHUOSUZAOQIZHENGFUDETEDIAN,RUGUORENMINFEICHANGXIAIMAOYI,WUYIYEHUISHIZHENGFUDEXINGWEIJUANRUDAOMAOYIDEHONGLIUZHIZHONG。XIBANYADEDAPIANZHIMINDI,YEYUFANGAIZHEIGEGULAOGUOJIAFAZHANDEZHUANZHIZHENGFUSHUYUANLE。SHISHISHANG,SHUYIQIANJIDEXIBANYAREN、GONGRENJIEJIHESHANGCENGRENSHILIKAILEXIBANYA;TAMENZAIGUOWAICONGSHIDEZHIYEZHIJIGUONEITIGONGHENSHAODEYINGBI,HUOJINXUSHAOLIANGHANGYUNDUNWEIDEXIAOBUFENSHANGPIN。XIBANYABENTUCHULEYANGMAO、SHUIGUOHETIEJIHUMEIYOUQITACHANPIN;GONGCHANGDAOBI;GONGYEKUISUN;RENKOUZHUJIANJIANSHAO。XIBANYAHEQIZHIMINDIJIHUQUANBUYIKAOHELANWEIQITIGONGZHONGDUODESHENGHUOBIXUPIN,JIEGUOSHITAMENWEISHUBUDUODEGONGYECHANPINJIHUBUGOUHUANQUZHEIXIESHENGHUOBIXUPIN。YIWEITONGSHIDAIDERENXIEDAO: “SUOYIHELANSHANGRENDAIQIANDAOSHIJIEJUEDADUOSHUDIFANGQUGOUMAIRIYONGPIN,DANSHIBIXUCONGWEIYIDEOUZHOUGUOJIA——XIBANYABANEILIDERENMINGOUMAITAMENSHANGPINDEQIANDAIHUILAI。”XIBANYARENZHEIYANGREQIEZHUIQIUDECAIFU——QIAN,HENKUAIYOUCONGTAMENSHOUSHANGDIUSHILE。QIANMIANYIJINGZHICHU,CONGJUNSHIGUANDIANLAIKAN,XIBANYAYOUYUHAIYUNSHUAITUI,YIJINGBIANDEFEICHANGXURUO。XIBANYAZHUANGZAIYOUXIANJISOUJIANCHUANXIAOHUOCANGNEIDECAIFU,JIBENSHANGDOUSHIYANZHEJITIAOCHANGGUIHANGXIANYUNHUIGUONEIDE,TAMENHENRONGYIBEIDIRENFUHUO,CONGERSHIJUNBEICHUYUTANHUANZHUANGTAI。DANSHI,YINGGUOHEHELANDECAIFUFENSANZAISHIJIEGEDIWUSHUSOUJIANCHUANSHANG,ZAIDUOCIXIAOHAOZHANZHONG,SUIJINGSHOULECHENZHONGDEDAJI,RENGWEITINGZHIZENGZHANG,JINGUANZHEIZHONGZENGZHANGHENFEILIQI,DANSHISHIHENWENTUODE。ZAIXIBANYAZUIWEIJIDELISHISHIQI,YUQILIANHEDEPUTAOYADEMINGYUNTONGYANGGENZHEZOUXIANGMEILUO;JINGUANPUTAOYAZUICHUZAILIYONGHAIYANGFAZHANDEJINGZHENGZHONG,ZHANZAIQIANLIE,KESHITAYIWANQUANLUOWULE。“ZHENGRUMOXIGEHEMILUDEKUANGZANGCENGSHISHIXIBANYAMEILUODEHUOGENYIYANG,BAXIDEKUANGZANGYEHUILEPUTAOYA。TAMENYUCHUNDIQINGSHIGEZHONGZHIZAOYE,BUJIUZHIHOU,YINGGUOBUJINXIANGPUTAOYATIGONGFUZHUANG,HAIXIANGPUTAOYATIGONGSUOYOUDEHUOWUHERIYONGPIN,SHENZHIXIANYUHEGUWU。PUTAOYADIUQILEJINYINCAIFUZHIHOU,SHENZHIFANGQILEGUOTU,BOERTUDEPUTAOYUANZHONGYUBEIYINGGUORENYONGTONGGUOPUTAOYARENDESHOULIUTONGDAOYINGGUOGEDIDEBAXIHUANGJINMAIQULE。”BEIBOGUANWANGappQUEXIN50NIANLAI,PUTAOYALAIYUANYUBAXIKUANGZANGDESHOUYIGONGYOU5YIMEIYUAN,DANSHIZAIZHEIYISHIQIJIESHUSHI,ZHIYOU2500WANYINGBILE,——ZHEISHIYIGEYINRUZHUMUDEYOUGUANZHENSHICAIFUHEFEIZHENSHICAIFUWANQUANBUTONGDELIZI。

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  FAZHANHAIQUANSUOBIXUDEZUIZHONGYAODEMINZUTEDIANSHIXIHUANMAOYI,BAOKUOBIXUSHENGCHANMOUXIEYONGLAIJIAOHUANDECHANPIN。JIARUYIGEMINZUYOUXIHUANMAOYIDEXIXING,BINGYOUYITIAOJIAOHAODEHAIANXIAN,HAISHANGDEGEZHONGWEIXIAN,HUODUIHAIYANGDEFANGANDOUBUKENENGZUDANGYIGEMINZUTONGGUOHAISHANGMAOYIQUXUNZHAOCAIFU。TONGGUOQITADEFANGFAKENENGHUIZHAODAOZHIFUDEDIFANG;DANSHIWEIBIHUIQUDEHAIQUAN。YIFAGUOWEILI,FAGUOYOUYIKUAIHENHAODEGUOTU,YOUYIGEQINLAODEMINZU,ZHANJUYIGEJIQILIXIANGDEDILIWEIZHI。FAGUOHAIJUNCENGYOUGUOWENMINGXIAERDEGUANGRONGLISHI,ZAIQIFAZHANCHUYUZUIDIGUSHI,YECONGWEISANGSHITASUOREAIDEJUNSHIRONGYU。DANSHI,XIANZAIZUOWEIYIGEHAIYANGGUOJIAQILAOGUDEJICHUSHIJIANLIZAIHAISHANGMAOYIZHISHANG,ERFAGUOYULISHISHANGDEQITAHAISHANGMINZUXIANGBI,ZHISHIZHANYOUYIGEXIANGDANGHAODEWEIZHI。ZAOCHENGZHEIZHONGJIEGUODEZHUYAOYUANYINSHIYOUBUTONGDEXUNZHAOCAIFUDEBANFADEMINZUTEDIANJUEDINGDE。DANGXIBANYARENHEPUTAOYARENTONGGUOCONGDIXIAWAJUEHUANGJINZHIFUSHI,FAGUORENDETEDIANSHISHITAMENTONGGUOJIEJIAN、JIEYUEHEDUNJIZHIFU。JUSHUOSHOUCAIYAOBIFACAIKUNNANDEDUO,ZHEISHIHENKENENGDE。ZHEIZHONGSHENMEHUOLIDUOJIUXIANGMAOXIANDETEDIANYUWEIMAOYIERZHENGFUQUANSHIJIEDEMAOXIANJINGSHENJIQIXIANGSI。AIJIESHENGCHUBEI,DANZIBUDAZHIGANZAIXIAOFANWEINEIQUMAOXIAN,YEXUNENGZAIYIGEXIANGYINGDEXIAOFANWEINEIKUOZHANGCAIFU,SUIRANBUHUIYUDAOGEZHONGFENGXIAN,DANSHIBUHUISHIDUIWAIMAOYIHEHAIYUNSHIYEDEYIFAZHAN。JULISHUOMING——SUOJUDESHILISHANGWEIKAOZHENG,BUFANGGUWANGTINGZHI——YIWEIFAGUOJUNGUANZAIYUBEIBOGUANWANGappTANDAOBANAMAYUNHESHISHUODAO: “BEIBOGUANWANGappZAIBANAMAYUNHESHANGYOULIANGFENGUPIAO。ZAIFAGUOBUXIANGNIMENMEIGUO,ZAINIMENNEIERSHAOSHURENJIUYOUHENDUOGUFEN,ERBEIBOGUANWANGappYIDAPIRENZHIZHANJUYIFENHUOHENSHAODEJIFEN。DANGNAZHEILIANGFENGUPIAODAOSHICHANGSHANGSHI,BEIBOGUANWANGappDEQIZIDUIBEIBOGUANWANGappSHUO: ‘NINALIANGFENGUPIAO,YIFENJINI,YIFENJIBEIBOGUANWANGapp。’”JIUQUEBAOGERENCAICHANDEWENDINGXINGERYAN,ZHEIZHONGSHENMOUYUANLVWUYISHIHENCONGMINGDE;DANSHIDANGGUOFENJINSHENHUOZAICAIZHENGSHANGSUOSHOUSUOJIAOCHENGWEIYIGEMINZUDETEDIANSHI,BIRANHUIFANGAIMAOYIHEGUOJIAHAIYUNDEFAZHAN。YUSHENGHUOYOUGUANDEJINQIANFANGMIANDEZHEIZHONGJINSHENYIJINGFANGAISHENGYU,YINCIFAGUORENKOUJIHUTINGZHIZENGZHANG。

  OUZHOUDEGUIZUJIECENGCONGZHONGSHIJIQI,JIUJICHENGLEYIZHONGAOMANDEQINGSHIPINGSHIMAOYIDECHUANTONG,GENJUBUTONGGUOJIADEMINZUTEDIAN,ZHEIZHONGPINGSHIMAOYIQUESHIYINGXIANGLEMEIGEGUOJIADEFAZHAN。XIBANYARENDEAOMANHENRONGYIYINGHEQINGSHIMAOYIDETAIDU,YUZAOCHENGCANZHONGSUNSHIDEBUYUANGONGZUO,ZUODENGCAIFUDEXIXINGJIEHEQILAI,SHITAMENYANEJINGSHANG。SHENZHILIANFAGUORENZIJIDOUCHENGRENAIXURONGSHITAMENDEMINZUTEDIAN,BINGYIZAIFAGUOQIDAOLEYUAOMANYIYANGDEZUOYONG。FAGUOYOUDAPIXUANHEDEGUIZUJIECENG,TAMENSUOXIANGYOUDESHOUZUNJINGQUANLI,JITAMENSUOMIAOSHIDEZHIYEBIAOSHANGLEYIGEXIADENGDEBIAOZHI。YIXIEFUYOUDESHANGRENHEZHIZAOZHEDOUKEWANGDEDAOGUIZUDEZUNCHENG,YIDANTAMENDEDAOLEGUIZUDEZUNCHENG,BIANFANGQILEZHUANQIANDEZHIYE。YINCI,SUIRANQINLAODEMINZUHEFEIWOFURAODETUDIWANJIULEMAOYIMIANZAOQUANMIANSHUAITUI,DANSHIJINGSHANGSHIDAIZHEYIZHONGCHIRUGANJINXINGDE,ZHEIZHONGCHIRUGANCUSHIYIXIEZUIHAODECONGSHIMAOYIDEDAILIRENYIYOUJIHUIJIUYAOXUNSUBAITUOTA。LUYISHISIZAIKEERPEIER [ YIZHEZHU: KEERPEIERHUOYIKEERBO(1619-1683),CHUSHENFUSHANGJIATING,LUYISHISISHIQIFAGUOCAIZHENGDACHEN,FENGXINGZHONGSHANGZHUYIZHENGCE,TONGCHENGKEERPEIERZHUYI,ZHUYAONEIRONGWEIFAZHANGONGYE,KUODASHUCHU,JIANSHAOSHURU,ZENGJIAGUOKUSHOURU。GAIZHENGCECUJINLEFAGUOZIBENZHUYIDEFAZHAN,DANWEINENGGENBENGAIBIANQIFENGJIANZHIDUDEJICHU。 ] DEYINGXIANGXIA,BANBULEYIXIANGFALING: “FANYUANCONGSHIHAIYUN、JINGSHANGDESUOYOUGUIZUDOUWUSUNYUTAMENDEGAOGUISHENFEN,DANBUZHUNTAMENJINXINGLINGSHOU。”CAIQUZHEIZHONGCUOSHIDELIYOUSHI“JINGSHANGNENGWEIBEIBOGUANWANGappDECHENMINSHURUSUOXUYAODEHUOWU,YIMANZUBEIBOGUANWANGappDEXUQIU,XIAOCHUPUBIANRENWEIHAISHANGMAOYIYUGAOGUISHENFENSHIBUNENGGONGCUNDENEIZHONGLIUCHUANYIJIUDESHEHUIYULUN。”DANSHI,SUOBANBUDEFALINGMEIYOUXIAOCHUYOUYISHIDE、GONGRANZHANYOUSHIDEPIANJIAN,TEBIESHIDANGXURONGXINSHIYIGEMINZUDEXIANZHUTEDIANSHI,GENGBUNENGXIAOCHUZHEIZHONGPIANJIAN。DUONIANZHIHOU,MENGDESIJIUJIAODAOSHUO,GUIZUJIECENGCONGSHIMAOYIWEIBEILEJUNZHUZHENGTIDEJINGSHENSHIZHI。

  HELANYEYOUGUIZUJIECENG,DANSHIZHEIGEGUOJIAMINGYISHANGSHIGONGHEZHI,YUNXUSIRENCHONGFENZIYOUDIFAHUITAMENXINGBANQIYEDENENGLI,GUOJIADEQUANLIZHONGXINSHIZAIYIXIEDACHENGSHILI。SHIYIGEGUOJIAQIANGDADEJICHUSHIQIAN,HUOZHEGENGQUEQIEDISHUOSHICAIFU。ZAIHELAN,CAIFUSHIQUFENGONGMINSHEHUIDIWEIDEYIZHONGJICHU,SHEIYOULECAIFU,SHEIZAIZHENGFUZHONGJIUYOUQUANLI;YOULEQUANLIJIUYOULESHEHUIDIWEI,BINGSHOURENZUNJING。ZAIYINGGUOZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGTONGYANGYEHENSHENGXING。YINGGUODEGUIZUJIECENGSUIRANHENAOMAN,DANSHIZAIDAIYIZHIZHENGFULI,CAIFUDESHILIHAISHIQIZUOYONGDE。ZAIRENMENDEXINMUZHONGCAIFUSHITEQUAN,SHOUDAORENMENDEZUNJING。YINGGUOYUHELANYIYANG,CAIFULAIYUANDEZHIYE,YUCAIFUBENSHENXIANGYOUTONGYANGDERONGYU。YINCI,ZAISHANGSHUDEZHEIXIEGUOJIALI,YOUMINZUTEDIANCHANSHENGDESHEHUIYULUN,HUIMINGXIANDIYINGXIANGZHEIGEMINZUDUIDAIMAOYIDETAIDU。

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  ZHEIGEDAOLIYUELAIYUEQINGCHULE,YINWEISUOYOUBENGUOZHENGFUDUIDAIZHIMINDIDETAIDU,YIBANLAISHUODOUSHIZISIDE。BUGUANZHIMINDISHIYONGSHENMEFANGFAJIANLIQILAIDE,BENGUOZHENGFUYIDANRENSHIDAOLEZHIMINDIDEZHONGYAOXING,ZHIMINDIBIANCHENGWEIBENGUOJIQUNIUNAIDEYITOUNAINIU。DANGRANZHEITOUNAINIUYEHUISHOUDAOHENHAODIZHAOLIAO;DANZHUYAOSHIYOUYUTAZUOWEIZIJIDEYIXIANGCAICHAN,JIYIDIANHAOCHUYESHIZHIDEDE。LIFAJIUSHIWEILELONGDUANZHIMINDIDEDUIWAIMAOYIZHIDINGLEFALV;ZHENGFUWEILAIZIBENTUDEZHIMINDIJUZHUZHETIGONGYOUYIDEYOUCHUAN;ZHIMINDIXIANGTONGCHANGDOUSHIJINGJIDENEIYANG,WANGWANGHAIYANGBEIKANCHENGSHISHIHEYUGUONEINEIXIENANYIKONGZHIDERENHEWUYONGDERENJUZHUDEDIFANG。KESHIZHIYAOJUNZHENGDANGJUHAILIUZAIZHIMINDILI,TARENGBUKEBIMIANDIJUYOUGUONEIGUYOUDETEZHENG。

  YINGGUOZUOWEIYIGEZHUYAODEZHIMINDIKAITUOGUO,SUOQUDEDEHANJIANHEJINGRENDECHENGGONGSHIXIANERYIJIANDE,SUOYIYEJIUWUXUZHUISHU。YINGGUOQUDECHENGGONGDEYUANYIN,SIHUZAIYUGAIMINZUDELIANGGETEDIAN。YIGESHIYINGGUOZHIMINZHEYUANYIZAITAMENXINKAIPIDEDIQULIDINGJU,ZHEISHIYUTAMENDELIYIYIZHIDE。JINGUANZHIMINZHEDUITAMENDEZUGUOCHONGMANHUAINIANDESHENQING,DANSHITAMENJUEBUHUIWEIKEWANGFANHUIZUGUOERJIAOLVBUAN。QICISHIYINGGUORENHUIBENNENGDI、XUNSUDI、CONGDUOFANGMIANXUNQIUKAIFAXINDIQUDEZIYUAN。TEBIESHIDIYIGETEDIAN,YINGGUORENBUTONGYUFAGUOREN,FAGUORENZONGSHIYUANYIHUIGUKEAIDEGUXIANGDENEIXIELINGRENYUKUAIDESHIQING。HOUYIGETEDIANYOUBUTONGYUXIBANYAREN,XIBANYARENDEXINGQUHEZHIXIANGFANWEITAIXIAZHAI,YIZHIXIANZHITAMENQUANMIANFAZHANYIGEXINKAIFADIQUDENENGLI。

  HELANRENDETEDIANHEPINQIONG,ZIRANCUSHITAMENQUJIANLIZHIMINDI,DAO1650NIANYIJINGZAIYAZHOU、FEIZHOUHEMEIZHOUJIANLILEDAPIANDEZHIMINDI,JINLIEJUZHEIXIEZHIMINDIDEMINGZIJIUHUIZHANJUHENDUOPIANFU。DANGSHIHELANZHANLINGDEZHIMINDIYUANYUANCHAOGUOLEYINGGUO。JINGUANZUICHUJIANLIZHEIXIEZHIMINDI,CONGQIXINGZHISHANGLAIKANWANQUANSHIWEILEMAOYI,ZHEIYESHIHEHUGUILVDE,DANSHIHELANRENDUIYUZHEIXIEZHIMINDISIHUYIZHIQUESHAOYIZHONGFAZHANDEYUANZE。“HELANRENZAIJIANLIZHEIXIEZHIMINDISHI,WEICENGXIANGMOUQIUKUODADIGUODEFANWEI,DANCHUNSHIWEILESHANGYEHEMAOYI。ZHISHIDANGHELANRENSHOUDAOZHOUWEIHUANJINGBIPOSHI,CAISHITUDUOQUZHEIXIEZHIMINDI。HELANRENPUBIANMANZUYUZAIDULIZIZHUDEGUOJIADEBAOHUXIAJINXINGMAOYI。”ZHEIZHONGZHIMANZUYUHUOLIDEYUANWANG,MEIYOUSHENMEZHENGZHIYEXIN,RUTONGFAGUOHEXIBANYADEZHUANZHIGUOJIANEIYANG,QINGXIANGYUSHIZHIMINDIYUBENGUOBAOCHIMAOYIYILAIGUANXI,FOUDINGLEZHIMINDIFAZHANDEGUYOUYUANZE。

  ZAIJIESHUZHEIGETANTAOZHIQIAN,YOURENKENENGHUITICHUZHIWEN,RUGUOQITADETIAOJIANDOUFEICHANGYOULI,NEIMEMEIGUODEMINZUTEDIANSHIFOUSHIHEFAZHANYIZHIQIANGDADEHAISHANGLILIANGNI?

  RUGUOQUXIAOLIFAZHANGAI,BAYOULIYUXINGBANQIYEDEDIQUTIANBUQILAI,SIHUBUXUYAOHUIYITAIYUANDEGUOQUJIUKEYISHUOMING,MEIGUOBUYONGHENJIUJIUHUIQUDEHAIQUAN。MEIGUORENJUYOUJINXINGMAOYIDECAINENG,JUYOUXINGBANQIYEZHUIQIULIRUNDEMAOXIANJINGSHEN,ERQIEDUICUJINMAOYIHEZHUIQIULIRUNDEGEZHONGXIANSUOJUYOUMINRUIDEXIUJUE。RUGUOWEILAIRENHEDIFANGXUYAOZHIMINHUA,BUBIHUAIYI,MEIGUORENJIANGHUIBATAMENZAIZIZHIHEDULIFAZHANFANGMIANDEYIQIECHUANTONGCAINENGDAIDAOZHEIXIEDIFANG。

 

影响海权的自然条件(6)

ZHENGFUDETEDIAN——ZAITAOLUNYIGEGUOJIADEZHENGFUHEZHIDUDUIYUFAZHANHAIQUANDEZUOYONGSHI,BIXUBIMIANGUODUODEZHELIYANJIU,YINGDANGBAZHEIZHUYILIJUXIANZAINEIXIEMINGXIANDE、ZHIJIEDEYUANYINSHANG,HEYOUZHEIXIEYUANYINSUOCHANSHENGDEJIEGUO,BUBILIKAISHANGSHUZHEIXIETAIYUANQUTANTAOGEZHONGJIANJIEDE、ZUIHOUDEYINGXIANG。

  DANSHI,BIXUZHUYI,TESHUXINGSHIDEZHENGFUHEZHIDU,YIJIBUTONGSHIQIGEGETONGZHIZHEDETEDIAN,YIJINGDUIHAIQUANDEFAZHANQIDAOLEFEICHANGMINGXIANDEZUOYONG。QIANMIANYIJINGTAOLUNGUODEYIGEGUOJIAHETADERENMINDEGEZHONGBUTONGDETEDIAN,XIANGDANGYUZIRANTIAOJIAN,YIGEGUOJIAXIANGYIGERENNEIYANGLIYONGZHEIXIEZIRANTIAOJIANKAISHIQISHENGYA;ERYIGEZHENGFUDEZUOYONGJIUXIANGDANGYUYUNYONGCONGMINGCAIZHI。RUGUOZHEIGEZHENGFUSHICONGMINGDE,JINGLICHONGPEIHEJUYOUBUQUBUNAODEJINGSHEN,JIUHUISHIYIGERENDEYISHENGHUOZHEYIGEGUOJIADESHIYEHUODECHENGGONG,FOUZEZHUDINGSHISHIBAI。

  RUGUOYIGEZHENGFUWANQUANANZHAORENMINDEPIHAOBANSHI,NEIMEZAIGEFANGMIANDEFAZHANJIANGSHIZHUOYOUCHENGXIAODE,ZHEISIHUSHIWANQUANKENENGDE。YINCIJIUHAIQUANERYAN,RUGUOYIGEGUOJIASHIZAIYIGEWANQUANSHOURENMINDEJINGSHENGUWU,BINGQIEWANQUANLEJIEDADUOSHURENDEZHENZHENGAIHAODEZHENGFUDELINGDAOXIA,ZHEIGEGUOJIAYIDINGHUIQUDEZUIHUIHUANGDECHENGJIU。DANGRENMINDEYIYUANHEQIZIRANXINGCHENGDEZUIJIADAIBIAOMENDEYIYUAN,ZAIZUJIANZHEIGEZHENGFUQIDAOLEHENDADEZUOYONG,ZHEIGEZHENGFUSHIZUILAOKAODE。DANSHIZHEIZHONGZIYOUMINZHUDEZHENGFUSHICHANGDABUDAOTADEMUDE,ERXIANGFAN,JINGMINGERJIANDINGDEZHUANZHIZHENGFUXINGSHIQUANLI,WANGWANGNENGYONGGENGZHIJIELEDANGDEFANGFACHUANGJIANYIZHIQIANGDADEHAISHANGMAOYIDUIWUHEYIZHIZHUOYUEDEHAIJUN,ERBIZIYOUMINZHUZHENGFUHUANMANDEXINGDONGGENGRONGYIDADAOMUDE。DANSHIZHEIZHONGFANGSHIDEKUNNANSHIZAIMOUYIBAOJUNXIESHIHOU,ZHENGFUDEMUDESHIFOUNENGGOUJIANCHIXIAQUDEWENTI。

  WUYIYINGGUOYIJINGCHAOGUORENHEYIGEJINDAIGUOJIA,CHENGWEIZUIQIANGDADEHAISHANGQIANGGUO,SUOYIYINGGUOZHENGFUDEXINGDONGYINGDANGSHOUXIANYINQIRENMENDEZHUYI。JINGUANYINGGUOZHENGFUCHANGCHANGBUZHIDECHENGZAN,DANSHIGEJIEZHENGFUDEXINGDONGZAIZONGDEFANGXIANGSHANG,YIZHISHIYIZHIDE。YINGGUOZHENGFUDEMUDEYIZHISHIWEILEKONGZHIHAIYANG。YINGGUOZHENGFUDEYIZHONGZUIAOMANDEBIAOXIANXINGSHI,ZAOZAIZHANMUSIYISHITONGZHISHIQIJIUCUNZAI,NEISHIDEYINGGUOCHULEBENDAOZHIWAI,JIHUHAIMEIYOUQITADELINGDI,HAIMEIYOUZAIFUJINIYAHEMASAZHUSAIJIANLIZHIMINDI。XIAMIANZHEIDUANHUASHILISAILIUXUSHUZHANMUSIZHENGFUDE:

  HENGLISISHISHIYOUSHIYILAIZUIJUQISHIQIGAIDEQINWANGZHIYI,TADEDACHENSULIGONGJUEZAIJIALAIDENGSHANGLEYISOUZHUFANSHANGGUAZHEFAGUOGUOQIDEFAGUOJUNJIAN,ZHEISOUJUNJIANYISHIDAOYINGJILIHAIXIA,JIUPENGSHANGLEZAINEILIYINGJIETADEYISOUYINGGUOCHUANDIGONGWENDEXIAOCHUAN,GAICHUANCHUANZHANGMINGLINGFAGUOJUNJIANJIANGXIAFAGUOQIZHI。SULIGONGJUEKAOLVDAOTADEJUNJIANDEXINGNENG,BUHUISHITAZAOSHOUSHENMEWURU,BIANDADANDIJUJUELE;DANSHISUIZHEZHEIZHONGJUJUEERLAIDEBIANSHI3FAPAODAN,PAODANDACHUANLEJUNJIAN,JIUHAOXIANGCICHUANLESUOYOUSHANLIANGDEFAGUORENDEXINYIYANG。QIANGQUANPOSHISULIGONGJUEQUFUYUZHENGYISUOJINZHIDESHIQING,HOULAIJINGUANTAJINXINGDUOCIKONGSU,DANCONGYINGGUOCHUANZHANGNEILIDEDAODEHUIDABUWAIHUSHI: “NEIQIAQIASHITADEZHIZEZECHENGTAXIANGZHEIWEISHIZHEYIXINGZHIJING,TONGSHIYEBIXUPOSHIZHEIWEISHIZHEXIANGZUOWEIHAISHANGTONGZHIZHEYINGGUODEGUOQIZHIJING。”SUIRANYINGWANGZHANMUSIBENRENSHUOLEYIXIEBIJIAOYOULIMAODEHUA,DANRENGBUNENGPINGXISULIGONGJUEDEFENMEN,SHITACAIQUKEZHITAIDUWEIZHUANGMANYI,TADECHUANGSHANGXIANGZHENZHASIDEYIZHIZAIYINYINZUOTONG,SHIYIZHIBUHAODE。SUIRANHENGLIDADIZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIABUDEBUKEZHIZIJI,DANSHITAYIANXIAJUEXIN,LINGZHAOJIHUILIYONGHAISHANGLILIANGLAIWEIHUTADEJUNZHUQUANLI,ZHEIZHONGHAISHANGLILIANGSUIZHESHIJIANDETUIYI,TASHINENGGOUPAIDAOHAISHANGQUDE。

YINGGUOZHEIZHONGBUKEKUANSHUDEDAIYOUWURUXINGDEXINGDONG,YONGXIANDAIGUANNIANLAIKAN,YUDANGSHIXUDUOMINZUDEJINGSHENSHIWANQUANYIZHIDE。GENGZHIDEZHUYIDESHIZHEIZHONGLINGRENJINGEDEXINGDONG,YESHIYINGGUOQITUMAOGEZHONGWEIXIANQUDUODEHAIYANGDEYIGEZUIZAODEJIXIANG。DANSHI,SULIGONGJUESHOUDAODEWURU,QIAQIASHIZAIYINGGUODEYIWEIDANXIAOPASHIDEGUOWANGDANGZHENGSHI,SHIYUZHIJIEDAIBIAOFAGUOZUIYONGGANHEZUIYOUCAINENGDEJUNZHUHENGLIDESHIJIEDE。YINGGUODEZHEIZHONGQIANGZHIDUIQIZHIZHIJINGDEYUCHUNYAOQIU,SHIMEIYOUSHIJIYIYIDE,TAZHIDADAOLEYIGEZHENGFUXIANGWAIGONGKAISHENGMINGDEMUDE。RANERZHEIZHONGMEISHIJIYIYIDEYAOQIU,ZAIKELUNWEIERTONGZHIXIAHEZAILIDAIYINGGUOGUOWANGTONGZHIXIAYIYANG,SHIBEIYANGEZHIXINGDE。1654NIANHELANZAODAOCANBAIHOU,“XIANGQIZHIZHIJING”YESHIBEIPOJIESHOUDEYIHETIAOJIANZHIYI。KELUNWEIERSHIYIGEMINGFUQISHIDESHISHIDOUZHUANZHIDEBAONVEDETONGZHIZHE,TADUISUOYOUYOUGUANYINGGUORONGYUHESHILIDESHIQINGDOUFEICHANGMINGAN,BINGQIEWEILEXUANYANGYINGGUODERONGYUHESHILI,YIKEBUTINGDIJIUCHANZAIHAOWUSHIJIYIYIDELIYISHANG。NEISHIDEYINGGUOHAIJUNJIHUHAIMEIYOUSHENMELILIANG,DANSHIZAITADEYANGEKONGZHIXIA,XUNSUCHENGXIANXIANCHUYIPAISHENGJIHEHUOLI。WEIYUSHIJIEGEDIDEYINGGUOJIANDUI,ZAIBOLUODEHAI、DIZHONGHAI、XIYINDUQUNDAOYIJIZHENDUIBEIFEIYISILANJIAOGEGUO,WEIQIGUOJIADUODEQUANLI,HUOWEIQIGUOJIAZAOSHOUDESUNSHIYAOQIUPEICHANG。YINGGUOZAIKELUNWEIERTONGZHIXIAKAISHIZHENGFUYAMAIJIA,BINGYONGWULIKUODAQIDIGUO,ZHEIZHONGKUODAYIJINGYANXUDAOBEIBOGUANWANGappZHEIGESHIDAI。YUCITONGSHI,TAYEMEIYOUWANGJICAIQUYIXIEQIANGYOULIDECUOSHILAIFAZHANYINGGUOPINGSHIDEMAOYIHEHAIYUN。

KELUNWEIERZHIDINGDEZHUMINGDE《HANGHAITIAOLI》,XUANBUSUOYOUZHIYINGGUOHUOZHIYINGGUOZHIMINDIDEJINKOUSHANGPIN,BIXUQUANBUYOUYINGGUODEJIANCHUAN,HUOYOUSHENGCHANHUOZHIZAOZHEIXIECHANPINDEGUOJIADEJIANCHUANLAICHENGYUN。ZHEIGEFALINGSHIZHUANWEIDUIFUOUZHOUYUNSHUYEJIAOFADADEHELANDE,TAYINQILEZHENGGEMAOYISHIJIEDEBUMAN。DANSHICHUYUMINZUJINGZHENGHEXIANGHUCHOUHENSHIQI,ZHEIZHONGFALINGXIANRANDUIYINGGUOSHIFEICHANGYOULIDE,BINGQIEZAIJUNZHUZHIDUXIACHIXULEHENZHANGSHIJIAN,125NIANZHIHOU,NAERXUNZAIFAJICHENGWEIYIMINGZHUMINGJIANGLINGZHIQIAN,JIUSHIFENREZHONGYUYINGGUODEHAIYUNSHIYE。ZAIXIYINDUQUNDAO,NAERXUNTONGGUOZHIXING《HANGHAITIAOLI》FANDUIMEIGUOSHANGCHUAN。KELUNWEIERSIHOU,CHALIERSHIJICHENGLETAFUQINDEWANGWEI,CHALIGUOWANGBEILILEYINGGUORENMIN,DANSHI,TARENGRANZHONGSHIYUSHIYINGGUOQIANGDADEZHENGCE,ZHONGSHIYUQIZHENGFUYIKAOHAIYANGDECHUANTONGZHENGCE。SUOYIZAITABEIPANYINGGUORENMINYULUYISHISISITONG,XIANGJIEZHUYULUYISHISIBAITUOYINGGUOYIHUIHEYINGGUORENMINDEJIBANSHI,TAZAIZHILUYISHISIDEXINZHONGXIEDAO: “DUIYUYINGGUOHEFAGUOLIANHEXIANZAICUNZAILIANGGEZHANGAI。DIYIGESHIYINGGUOFEICHANGDANXINFAGUOXIANZAIZHENGZAIWEIFAZHANMAOYIJIJICHUANGZAOTIAOJIAN,DANXINFAGUOJIANGCHENGWEIYIGEPOJUYINGXIANGDEHAISHANGQIANGGUO。ZHEISHIBEIBOGUANWANGappFEICHANGYILVDEYIGEZHONGYAOYUANYIN,ZHIYOUBEIBOGUANWANGappYINGGUODEMAOYIHEYINGGUODEHAISHANGLILIANGCAINENGZHANYOUZHEIZHONGZHONGYAODIWEI。YINCIFAGUOZAIZHEIYIFANGMIANSUOCAIQUDEMEIYIGEBUZHOUJIANGHUISHILIANGGUOZHIJIANDECAIYIZHANGQICUNZAI。”ZAIYINGFALIANGGUOGUOWANGZHUNBEIJINGONGHELANZHIQIANDETANPANZHONG,DUIYULIANGGUOLIANHEJIANDUIGAIYOUSHEILAITONGLVDEWENTI,YINQILEYICHANGJILIEDEZHENGLUN。CHALIERSHIZAIZHEIYIDIANSHISHIJIANDINGBUYIDE。TASHUO: “KONGZHIHAIYANGSHIYINGGUODECHUANTONGGUANLI。”YINCI,TATANLVDIGAOSUFAGUOZHUYINGGUODASHI,JISHITATONGYIYOUFAGUORENTONGLV,TADECHENMINYEBUHUITINGCONGTADE。ZAIJIHUADUIBEIBULIANHEQISHENG [ ZHU: BEIBULIANHEQISHENG: 1579NIANTUOLIXIBANYADULI,HOULAICHENGWEIHELANWANGGUOJICHUDEBEIHAIYANANDIDIQUZHUSHENG。 ] 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